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4me anne du Dpartement Gnie lectrique

Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours dAntennes

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De quoi allons-nous parler ? allons-

Nous allons parler des antennes (ou ariens), dispositifs permettant la transposition dune nergie guide en un champ lectromagntique rayonn en espace libre (ou inversement). Il existe une multitude de types dantennes, de tailles et de formes trs diverses, aux modes de fonctionnement plus ou moins complexes. Nous allons dfinir les caractristiques et proprits communes ces diffrents dispositifs ainsi que leurs domaines dapplications.
Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours dAntennes 2
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Les antennes au quotidien


GSM 900 MHz DCS 1800 MHz UMTS 2 GHz Analogique 800 MHz DECT ~1900 MHz Radar anticollision ~80 GHz Tlpage ~6 GHz Ouverture distance 433 MHz

Wifi / Bluetooth / UWB 2.4 6 GHz

TV terrestre 500 MHz Systmes satellites 1 45 GHz (Ex : Tlvision 12 GHz, GPS 1.5 GHz)
Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours dAntennes 3
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Navire militaire

Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours dAntennes

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Radiotlescope 1 3,5 GHz


Miroir plan mobile autour d'un axe est-ouest (hauteur 40 m ; longueur 200 m ; prcision de surface 4 mm; poids 700 t) Foyer de l'antenne, cornets de rception et pramplificateurs refroidis 250 C mobiles sur un arc de 250 m

Centre de Nanay (Cher)

Miroir sphrique fixe, d'axe nord-sud (hauteur 35 m, longueur 300 m, prcision de surface 3 mm; rayon 560 m)
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Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours dAntennes

Problme principal : lnergie


3 MHz 100m 30 MHz 10m 300 MHz 1m 3 GHz 10 cm 30 GHz 1 cm Radars mto Radars militaires Satellites 300 GHz 1 mm

120 dBm 100 80 60 40 20 0


Amateurs GSM Amateurs DECT TV VHF TFTS

1GW 1MW

TV UHF Four Tl page

1KW 1W 1mW

Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours dAntennes

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Ex : Communication Terre-satellite Terre1GW 1MW 1kW 1W 1mW 1W 1pW 1fW


Signal dentre Gain antenne Gain antenne Signal capt par la terre
Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours dAntennes 7
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Puissance Isotrope

Antenne terrestre Antenne satellite

Ampli terre

Ampli

Low Noise amplifier

Signal de sortie

Signal capt

La chane de transmission radio


Partie mission :
signal utile BB Cod Mod duplexeur ampli circulateur antenne

synth fo

Partie rception :
antenne duplex ampli LNA synth fi Dmod ampli Dcod signal utile

Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours dAntennes

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Exemple dun GSM

canal radio

Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours dAntennes

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Notion de canal radio


La chane de transmission radio :
metteur RF rcepteur RF

num/analog

analog/num

Propagation guide

Propagation espace libre

Propagation guide

canal radio Les botiers contenant llectronique sont relis aux antennes via des lignes ou cbles (feeders). Dun point de vue traitement du signal, lensemble des dformations de londe engendres par la propagation guide+libre forme le canal radio.
Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours dAntennes 10
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O se perd lnergie ?
attnuation, dispersion attnuation, dispersion

Milieu de propagation

bruit des composants

bruit des composants

dsadaptation

dsadaptation

Rflexions, diffractions, trajets multiples, obstacles, diffusion, vanouissement, AEL, conditions mtos... Et tous ces paramtres varient en fonction de la frquence, du temps et mme de la polarisation de londe.
Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours dAntennes 11
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Domaines abords
Pour comprendre les phnomnes rgissant le fonctionnement des antennes ainsi que leur intgration dans un systme de communication, les pr-requis sont : des connaissances de base de llectromagntisme (quations de Maxwell, propagation des ondes EM...); la bonne comprhension des principes des lignes de transmission et surtout de ladaptation en impdance des systmes (ondes progressives, ondes stationnaires...); savoir prendre du recul : les antennes reprsentent une application pratique des quations de Maxwell o lon peut voir les phnomnes physiques sans rester purement dans les calculs thoriques.

Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours dAntennes

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Plan dtaill
10h de cours : 8h (G. Villemaud) + 2h (J.M. Gorce) Antennes et Propagation 3 grandes parties : Modlisation (application GSM) Principes des antennes Caractristiques des antennes Diffrents types dantennes

Principes des antennes : Passage propagation guide/espace libre Le champ EM et les zones de rayonnement Le doublet lmentaire Les thormes fondamentaux Notion de front donde La polarisation

Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours dAntennes

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Plan dtaill
Caractristiques des antennes : Impdance dentre / notion de circuit Fonction caractristique de rayonnement Puissance rayonne Directivit et gain Bilan de liaison

Types dantennes : Antennes filaires Antennes fentes Antennes patchs Antennes rflecteur Mise en rseau

Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours dAntennes

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