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ANTENNES INTELLIGENTES

Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes

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PLAN DU COURS j Introduction


Historique, gnralits Caractristiques des antennes

j Partie I : Antennes compactes j Partie II : Antennes larges bandes j Partie III : Antennes polarisation circulaire j Partie IV : Antennes grand gain j Partie V : Formation de faisceau j Partie VI : Antennes intelligentes j Partie VII : MIMO
Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes 2
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PROBLEME DANS LES RESEAUX MOBILES Comment garantir la fois un dbit important et la mobilit de lutilisateur ? Le systme le plus simple pour garantir la mobilit serait de pouvoir couvrir une large zone o le mobile serait porte quelque soit sa position. ressources limites (un seul utilisateur possible, puissance importante...)

Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes

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PROBLEME DANS LES RESEAUX MOBILES Pour garantir un dbit important, lidal est une liaison point point pour chaque utilisateur Les utilisateurs doivent alors tre des positions fixes

Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes

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DEPLOIEMENT CELLULAIRE La solution dune rpartition cellulaire des stations de base permet une rutilisation des frquences utilises et une gestion des ressources en puissance. Pour garder un rapport SNR suffisant, il faut un facteur de rutilisation lev

Passage au tri-sectoriel
N 1 n=3 C/I (dB) -0.6 n=4 C/I (dB) 1,75 3 6,5 11 4 7 9 12 8,4 12 13,6 15,5 13,8 18,7 20,8 23,3
5

13 16 24

19 18,5 27,3
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Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes

DEPLOIEMENT OMNIDIRECTIONNEL

Cellules co-canal

Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes

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DEPLOIEMENT TRI-SECTORIEL TRI90 2 60 1.5 150 1 0.5 30

Remplacement dune cellule omnidirectionnelle par trois secteurs de 120

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Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes

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DEPLOIEMENT TRI-SECTORIEL TRI-

Cellules co-canal

Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes

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DEPLOIEMENT TRI-SECTORIEL TRI90

Avantages : Meilleure gestion des puissances Meilleure rutilisation des frquences Surcot faible

2 60 1.5

120

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valeur avec ant. sectorielles

valeur avec ant. omnidirectionnelles


3 6,5 11

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N 1 n=3 C/I (dB) -0.6 n=4 C/I (dB) 1,75

4 7 9 12 8,4 12 13,6 15,5 13,8 18,7 20,8 23,3


9

13 16 24

19 18,5 27,3
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Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes

UTILISATION DE DIVERSITE SPATIALE

Lutilisation de 2 antennes espaces permet de limiter les affaiblissements ds aux trajets multiples

Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes

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UTILISATION DE DIVERSITE SPATIALE

Techniques de diversit spatiale mais aussi frquentielle, temporelle ou de polarisation


Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes 11
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BALAYAGE DE FAISCEAUX On peut encore amliorer lefficacit du systme en remplaant chaque antenne omni ou sectorielle par un systme pouvant commuter entre plusieurs faisceaux douverture troite. Cest ce que lon appelle la commutation de faisceaux.

Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes

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BALAYAGE DE FAISCEAUX Permet encore un gain significatif, mais avec une structure physique plus lourde

Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes

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ANTENNES ADAPTATIVES EN RECEPTION

Problmatique
Comment peut-on combiner plusieurs antennes en rception pour amliorer au mieux le signal ???

Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes

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ANALOGIE EN ACOUSTIQUE

Sparer le signal utile des interfrents revient distinguer la source sonore dsire : la diffrence entre les informations reues par les deux oreilles permet de sorienter et la connaissance des autres bruits permet de mieux dcrypter le signal utile (analogie cocktail party )

Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes

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DIFFERENCE DE TRAJET SUR 2 ANTENNES

Deux signaux reus, dcals (dphass)

Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes

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Signaux reus :
1 direction d arrive du signal (=) mobile en champ lointain les antennes en rception sont omnidirectionnelles Le signal reu est le mme sur les 2 antennes, avec simplement un dphasage, lie la distance :

S1 ( f ) ! S 0 ( f ) e jFd cos] S 2 ( f ) ! S 0 ( f ) e  jFd cos]


Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes 17
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Modle plus gnral :


N capteurs chaque capteur reoit un signal modifi par le canal
fonction de transfert du canal

S1 ( f ) ! H1 ( f ) S 0 ( f ) S2 ( f ) ! H 2 ( f ) S0 ( f ) / S N ( f ) ! H N ( f ) S0 ( f )
Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes 18
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Modle en bande troite :


on peut assimiler Hi une constante complexe

S1 ! H1 S 0 S2 ! H 2 S0 / S N ! H N S0

S ! H S0

Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes

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PRISE EN COMPTE DU BRUIT

Combinaison dans un environnement de bruit blanc

Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes

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UTILISATION DE FILTRE

Signal reu :

S ! H S0  N
T S ! F H S0  N } S 0
H
B *

on choisit un filtre tel que :

prenons : F!

H H

Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes

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Exemple des 2 antennes :


S ! H S0  N
le filtre correspondant : F! H
B *

e jFd cos =0 H !  jFd cos = 0 e e  jFd cos =0 1 F ! jFd cos = 0 2 e


pondration de phase

H H

Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes

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Slectivit :
2 sources :
=0 =1

on focalise avec le bon filtre sur M0.


 cos = cos = 1 e  jFd cos =1 1 e jFd 0 1 e jFd 0 H 0 !  jFd cos = H 1 ! jFd cos = F 0 ! jFd cos = 0 0 1 2 e 2 e 2 e

Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes

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Consquence sur le signal reu :


=1 =0

S ! H 0 S 0  H 1 S1 T S ! F 0 S ! S 0  cos Fd cos] 0  cos] 1 S1 S ! S0  k01 S1


Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes 24
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Dmos
y

0 2d

=

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90 1

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Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes

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90 1

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Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes

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90

=0=T/2

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270 Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes

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Consquence sur le niveau de bruit


si un seul capteur : bruit N; DSP : W(f) si plusieurs capteurs :
matrice dintercorrlation spectrale

W +N !

W 1

! W Q W

Matrice de cohrence spatiale

Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes

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Matrice dintercorrlation spectrale aprs filtrage : + ' ! F T + F * N N

le gain en SNR li au filtrage :

F H G!
T

F Q F

Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes

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Exemple avec l antenne 2 lments


aprs filtrage :

+ ! F +N F ! 0.5 W

' N

le gain en SNR li au filtrage :

1 G! T ! !2 * 0.5 F Q F
Rq : pour N lments, avec une amplitude constante en rception, le gain est gal N
Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes 31
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F H

Remarque concernant lindpendance du bruit :


Le gain pour N lments, avec une amplitude constante en rception est gal N, ssi les bruits de chaque capteurs sont indpendants sinon le gain est plus faible il faut 2d>P/2.

Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes

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Paramtres :
influence de la distance entre antennes
ncessit de l indpendance des signaux

influence du nombre d lments


augmentation du pouvoir discriminant

influence de la gomtrie
existence de directions privilgies

Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes

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REJECTION DINTERFERENCE But : attnuer le plus possible linfluence dun signal interfrent sur la rception du signal utile

Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes

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Problmatique
Le filtre prcdent a pour but doptimiser les contributions des capteurs pour amliorer le SNR global. Par contre, ce nest pas toujours optimal, lorsque le bruit est li une source ponctuelle

Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes

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S
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S
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I Interfrent mal filtr


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Interfrent bien filtr

Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes

Objectif : pnaliser les directions o un mobile est prsent


la direction de la source S est caractrise par son filtre de propagation. H0 La direction de linterfrent I est caractris par son filtre propre H1.

Chercher un filtre qui maximise S en minimisant I.

Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes

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Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes

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Filtre optimal
on considre le bruit comme tant la somme du bruit blanc environnant et de l interfrent. Sa matrice interspectrale est :

+N ! W I  K F 1 F +N Q! W K

B 1

filtre de blanchiment du bruit, suivi d un filtre de dtection

H0 F ! B 1 H 0 Q H 0
pondration amplitude et phase

1

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=0=T/4; =int=[T/3,0] ; 4 antennes, 2d=0.5 filtre classique

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Applications
dissocier le signal mis par un mobile utile, des signaux mis par des mobiles dans les cellules voisines

Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes

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Applications
dissocier les signaux mis par 2 mobiles utiles (ou N), simultanment.

Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes

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On peut alors rduire totalement les interfrences entre mobiles internes une cellule. On peut mme envisager de rutiliser un mme code par plusieurs mobiles appartenant la mme cellule. Ces techniques devraient permettre une augmentation trs significative de la capacit des rseaux cellulaires

Techniques SDMA

Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes

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ANTENNES ADAPTATIVES EN EMISSION On ne peut plus se contenter de recevoir le signal et de le traiter pour trouver la meilleure combinaison, il faut ici appliquer directement les pondrations adquates pour diriger le faisceau vers lutilisateur.

Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes

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en rception, le traitement est fait posteriori. On peut ainsi envisager naturellement un traitement adaptatif dynamique en mission, le traitement est possible (=focalisation), mais ncessite la connaissance initiale de l objectif vis. la prcision peut se faire au dtriment de la mobilit, surtout si le canal nest pas stable.

Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes

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DIFFERENTS ALGORITHMES

3 grandes catgories dalgorithme : -ceux ncessitant une squence dapprentissage; -ceux ncessitant la connaissance de la direction darrive du signal; -ceux travaillant en aveugle.

Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes

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SEQUENCE DAPPRENTISSAGE

La squence dapprentissage est une partie dinformation envoye connue du rcepteur lui permettant de dduire de ltat darrive des bits la fonction de transfert du canal.
Algos les plus utiliss : MMSE (minimisation de lerreur quadratique moyenne) LMS (Least Mean Square) RLS (Recursive Least Square) SMI (Sampled Matrix Invariance)

Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes

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Exemple dutilisation :
Il existe une solution qui permet d obtenir de la diversit, sans connaissance a priori de la position de la source. Cela permet d introduire de la diversit : exemple avec 2 metteurs

Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes

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Emission alterne dun symbole sur A1 et A2 :

, . ,0, a n , . ,0, a1 ,0, a 0

h1

, . , a n , . , a 2 , a1 , a 0
, . , a n ,0, . , a1 ,0, a 0 ,0
h2

Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes

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Algorithme de dtection :
l algorithme travaille sur 2 priodes

1re impulsion : 2ime impulsion : combinaison :

r2 m ! h1 am
r2 m 1 ! h2 am

2 2 * * am ! h1 r2 m  h2 r2 m 1 ! h1  h2 am

inconvnient : on divise le dbit par 2.

Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes

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Emission simultane de 2 symboles sur A1 et A2 :


* 2 m 1 * 3 * 1

,. , a

, a 2 m ,. , a , a 2 , a , a 0

h1

, . , a n , . , a 2 , a1 , a 0
h2

, . ,a , a 2 m 1 , . ,a , a 3 ,a , a1


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* 2m

* 2

* 0

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Algorithme de dtection :
l algorithme travaille sur 2 priodes

1re impulsion :

r2 m ! h1 am  h2 am 1
! h1 a
* 2 m 1

2ime impulsion : r2 m 1

 h2 a

* 2m

combinaison :

2 2 * * a2 m ! h1 r2 m  h2 r2 m1 ! h1  h2 a2 m 2 2 * * a2 m1 ! h2 r2 m  h1 r2 m1 ! h1  h2 a2 m1

Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes

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Proprits :
On obtient la mme diversit (N) en mission qu en rception. Il faut connatre le canal au niveau du rcepteur (et pas de l metteur). Squence dapprentissage, La combinaison mission/rception est possible et amliore encore la diversit. Les chemins multiples (fast fading) peuvent compromettre ce principe
=> Egalisation multi-voies.

Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes

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CONNAISSANCE DE LA DOA

Utilisation en 2 temps : - dtermination de la DOA grce au signal reu de lutilisateur (+interfrents) - puis formation du faisceau en consquence
Algos les plus utiliss : MVDR (Minimum Variance Distortionless Responce) Pour la DOA : MUSIC ou ESPRIT

Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes

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ILLUSTRATION

Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes

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ALGORITHMES AVEUGLES

Tentent dextraire les caractristiques du canal des informations reue dans le signal

Traitement lourd et difficile en temps rel

Souvent associs aux autres techniques (semi-aveugle)

Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes

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CONCLUSION Les antennes intelligentes permettent une augmentation importante de la capacit des rseaux (augmentation de porte, cell-splitting, amlioration du dbit...). Points durs : -le cot matriel (plus dantennes, rseaux de pondration, processeurs de calcul...); -la rapidit des algos.

Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes

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ArrayComm (USA) - installations in WLL - tests for GSM 1800

Smart Antennas in Mobile Communications on the Globe


GigabitWireless(USA) WLL Ericsson (SW) first system system solution with SA GSM (commercially available) Radio Design AB (SW) NMT-450

IntelliWave Wireless Local Loop System

NTT DoCoMo (Japan) Testbed for UTRA

Raytheon (USA) Commercially available Fully Adaptive Smart Antenna System

UMTS ?
TSUNAMI-SUNBEAMSATURN/METRA Projects (EU) ARPA (USA )/GloMo project Metawave (USA) Commercially available IntelliCell Switched Beam System
- Wide range of R&D activity - Recommendations for standardization - Field Trials GSM/DCS 1800 system

Guillaume VILLEMAUD Cours Techniques dAntennes

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