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ENERGY

Types of Energy
Kinetic Energy
Energy

due to the motion of an object.

Potential Energy
Energy

due to the position of an object.

Internal Energy
Heat

energy.

Kinetic Energy
Which has more energy:
student running 5 m/s. A car driving 5 m/s. KE ~ m
A

car driving 10 m/s. A car driving 20 m/s. KE ~ v


A


Actually (KE ~ v2)

Kinetic Energy
KE = m v2 DONT FORGET TO SQUARE IT!!! Units:
m:

kg v: m/s KE: kg m2/s2 J (joule) Named for British physicist James Prescott Joule (18181889) who demonstrated that heat is a form of energy.

Kinetic Energy
How much kinetic energy does a 0.05 kg bullet have if it is traveling at 150 m/s?
562.5

How much kinetic energy does a 70 kg student have if they are running 4 m/s?
560

A person can have the same KE as a bullet that is moving really fast because a person is much more massive.

Potential Energy
Gravitational Potential Energy If you lift something up in the air it has the potential to do what?
Fall

down!

How could I give something more gravitational potential energy?


Lift

is higher.

PE ~ h

Potential Energy
PE ~ h PE ~ Fg
PE

~ mg

PE = mgh PE = mg h

Potential Energy
How much potential energy does a 5 kg object have if it is 4 meters above the ground?
196.2

How high must you lift a 0.001 kg feather to give it the same potential energy?
20,000

Conservation
Energy is a conserved quantity. The total energy in a closed system remains constant. Energy can transform from one type to another, but the total remains the same. ET1 = ET2

Total Energy
What forms of energy can an object have?
Kinetic Potential Internal

Can it have more than one form of energy at the same time?

Of course!

ET = KE + PE + Q

If we are ignoring friction (which we often are) the internal energy cant change, so we ignore it.

Conservation of Energy
A belligerent student threatens to drop his 1 kg physics textbook out of a window that is 12 m high.
How


much potential energy does the book have? much kinetic energy does the book have? is the total energy of the book?

118J 0J 118J

How


What


Conservation of Energy

How much total energy will the book have when it is halfway to the ground?


118 J

How much total energy will the book have as it hits the ground?


118J

How much potential energy does the book have as it hits the ground?


0J

How much kinetic energy does the book have as it hits the ground?


118J 15.4 m/s

What is the velocity of the book as it hits the ground?




Conservation of Energy
How high can you jump? (Estimate) What is your potential energy when you are at your highest point? What is your velocity when you hit the ground?

Conservation of Energy
As a general rule:

PEtop = KEbottom

Conservation of Energy
A 10 kg cart is placed at point A and is allowed to roll to the right
A B 15m 9m C D

What is the potential energy of the cart at point A? What is the potential energy of the cart at point B? What is the kinetic energy of the cart at point B? What is the velocity of the cart at point B?

Conservation of Energy
A 10 kg cart is placed at point A and is allowed to roll to the right
A B 15m 9m C D

What is the potential energy at point C?


0

J J

What is the kinetic energy at point C?


1472

What is the velocity of the cart at point C?


17

m/s

Work
Work - the transfer of energy from one object to another. You can transfer energy to an object by changing its height or velocity.
would you change the height or velocity? Exert a force!
How

Work = Force * distance


W

= Fd

Work Practice
A plow exerts a force of 450N to move a pile of snow 12 meters. How much work did it do?

5400 J

Exerting a force of 7N on an object, a person does 28J of work. How far does the person move the object?

4m

A tugboat does 3400J of work to move a ship 15 meters. How much force did the tugboat exert?

227N

Work - Energy
In a closed system energy is conserved. What if it is not a closed system? If I do work on an object, I can change its total energy. W = ET

Work Energy Practice


If you push an object on a frictionless surface with a force of 15N over a distance of 10 m, how much kinetic energy will the object gain?
150

How much work must one do in order to get a 12kg object at rest to move 4 m/s?
96

Work Done Against Friction


How much work must someone do to accelerate a 2 kg object at rest to a velocity of 2 m/s, on a frictionless surface?
4J

On a surface with friction, do you think it would take less, more, or the same amount of work?
More!

Friction converts some of your work into internal energy (heat). The rest

Work Done Against Friction

5 kg

5 kg

It takes 60 N of force to lift the 5kg block 3 meters. How much work was done against friction?
30

Where did this energy go?


It

heated up the rope!

Work Done Against Friction

10 m

The block slides down the incline and reaches a velocity of 10 m/s at the bottom. How much work was done against friction?

Work Done Against Friction


Compare the initial energy OR work done to the final energy. The difference is the work done against friction.

Power
Power is the rate at which work is done. P = W/t W = Fd
P

= Fd/t

d/t = v
P

= Fv

P = W/t = Fd/t = Fv

Units for Power


P = W/t W: J t: s P: J/s W (watt)

Named for James Watt (1736-1819), a Scottish inventor and engineer who did very important work in the development of the steam engine.

Power Practice
A motor does 150J of work in 4 seconds. What is the power of the motor?

37.5 W

How much power is required to move something 5 meters using a force of 150N in just 3 seconds?

250 W

A cars engine exerts a force of 3000N in order to keep the car at a speed of 20 m/s. What is the power of the engine?

60000 W

Power Light Bulbs


A standard household light bulb is rated at 60W. How much work does the light bulb do in 1 hour? Electricity costs 8.53 cents per kWh (source: LIPA)
2.37*10^-6

cents/J