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Lipids

2. Digestion, absorption and transport

The major dietary lipids are: Triglicerides Phospholipids Cholesterol ant its esters
Digestion of lipids takes place: 1. In mouth very little, due to the presence of lingual lipase 2. In stomach also very little, due to the presence of gastric lipase 3. In duodenum and small intestine the main place of lipid digestion due to the presence of bile acids, pancreatic juice with pancreatic lipases.

Digestion in duodenum and small intestine includes:


1. Emulsification; 2. Hydrolysis; 3. Mixed micelle formation

Absorption of lipids includes: includes:


4. transfer of mixed micelles into enterocytes 5. re-synthesis of triglycerides in enterocytes 6. formation of chylomicrons 7. transport of chylomicrons to the tissues.

Emulsification of Lipids
1.

Emulsification - a process when large aggregates of dietary triglyceride and other lipids, which are insoluble in an aqueous environment, is broken down physically and held in suspension. The key players in this transformation are bile acids.

Emulsification of Lipids
Lipids (fats and oils) are insoluble in water (hydrophobic). Lipids tend to form larger droplets which reduces the surface area for digestion. The hydrophobic lipid is only accessible to the water soluble lipases at the interface between lipid and water. To increase the access (increased surface area) and rate of lipid digestion the lipid droplet must be broken up. Bile salts secreted from the liver (via gallbladder) have molecules with a combination of hydrophobic and (lipophilic) hydrophilic regions. Bile salts break up the lipid droplet into many smaller droplets thereby increasing the surface area of lipid-water access.

Bile acidsacids-

(bile salts) are polar derivatives of cholesterol, formed in liver and secreted into the gall bladder. They pass via the bile duct into the intestine, where they aid digestion of fats & fat-soluble vitamins. fatBile acids have detergent properties.

Bile acids emulsify fat globules into smaller micelles, increasing the surface area accessible to lipidlipid-hydrolyzing enzymes. They also activate the lipolytic enzymes.

2. Hydrolysis of Lipids
Hydrolysis - triglyceride molecules must be enzymatically digested to yield monoglyceride and fatty acids, both of which can efficiently diffuse or be transported into the enterocyte

The key players in this transformation are:


Pancreatic lipase (secreted into the intestine by pancreas), catalyzes hydrolysis of triacylglycerols at positions 1 & 3, forming 1,21,2diacylglycerols, & then 2-monoacylglycerols. 2A protein colipase is required to aid binding of the enzyme at the lipid-water interface. lipid-

Action of Pancreatic Lipase:

Pancreatic lipase hydrolyses the esteric bonds between glycerol and fatty acids, resulting free glycerol and three fatty acids, but the enzyme can hydrolyze the bonds only at positions 1 and 3 of the triglyceride, leaving two free fatty acids and a 2-monoglyceride.

Digestion of Glycerophospholipids
Phospholipase A2 is secreted by the pancreas into the intestine. It hydrolyzes the ester linkage between the fatty acid and the hydroxyl on C2 of phospholipids There are also phospholipase A1 , C and D, which hydrolyzes other bonds of phospholipids

Digestion of cholesterol esters

cholesterolesterase

Cholesterol and fatty acid

In the result of lipolytic enzymes action a large number of different hydrolysis products are obtained: glycerol, fatty acids, 2-monoacilglycerols, lysophospholipids.

Glycerol and small chain fatty acids are directly absorbed from intestinal lumen into enterocytes by simple diffusion , than to portal vein and are taken to liver.

3. Micelles formation:
Other product long chain fatty acids, colesterol, 2monoacilglycerols, lysophospholipids are incorporated together with bile acids into molecular aggregates called mixed micelles Mixed micelles are a mediator for gastrointestinal absorption of lipid-soluble ingredients

Absorption of lipids includes: includes:


4. transfer of mixed micelles into enterocytes 5. re-synthesis of triglycerides in enterocytes 6. formation of chylomicrons 7. transport of chylomicrons to the tissues.

Absorption:
4. Transfer of mixed micelles into enterocytes. The structure of the micelles allows them to fuse with the cell membrane and the fatty acid molecules to pass into the epithelial cells of small intestine villus. 5. Re-synthesis of triglycerides: The fatty acids and glycerol recombine in the endoplasmic reticulum to form lipid. 6. Formation of chylomicrons Protein is added to the lipid to form lipoproteins called chylomicrons.

7. Transport of chylomicrons to the tissuesExocytosis of the chylomicrons releases the lipoprotein from the cell. The lipoprotein is taken up in the lymphatic system and then enter the general blood circulation

Lipid digestion and absorbtion

Anatomy of a Lipoprotein
The principal lipid components are triglycerides, cholesterol, cholesteryl esters and phospholipids. The hydrophobic core of the particle is formed by the triglycerides and cholesteryl esters. All the apoproteins are amphipathic and interact with both lipids and water.

Lipoproteins
Various combinations of lipid and protein produce particles of different densities. They are:

chylomicrons, very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), lowlowlow-density lipoproteins (LDL), highhigh-density lipoproteins (HDL). The most distinguishing feature of each class is the density and relative amounts of lipid and protein called apoproteins.

Human plasma lipoproteins


chylomicron VLDL Density (g/ml) <0.95 0.950 1.006 7 50 7 12 20 IDL 1.006 1.019 15 31 7 23 22 LDL 1.019 1.063 20 10 8 42 22 B-100 HDL 1.063 1.210 40 55 8 4 12 20 22 A-I, A-II, C-I, C-II, C-III, D, E

Components (% dry weight) protein triglycerides free cholesterol phospholipids Apoprotein composition 2 83 2 7 A-I, A-II, B-48, C-I, C-II, C-III

cholesteryl esters 3

B-100, C-I, B-100, C-I, C-II, C-III, C-II, C-III, E E

Chylomicrons
In lipid uptake from the intestine , chylomicrons, chylomicrons, which contain apoprotein C-II C(apoC(apoC-II), move from the intestinal mucosa into the lymphatic system, from which they enter the blood and are carried to muscle and adipose tissue

In the capillaries of these tissues, the extracellular enzyme lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is activated by apoCapoC-II. This enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols to fatty acids and glycerol, which are taken up by cells in the target tissues. In muscle, the fatty acids are oxidized for energy; in adipose tissue they are stored as triglycerides.