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The physical layer is to transport a raw bit stream from one machine to another. Various physical media used for the actual transmission. Each one has its own niche in terms of bandwidth, delay, cost, and ease of installation and maintenance. Media

Guided media (such as copper wire and fiber optics)

Unguided media (such as radio and lasers through the air)

2.2.1 Magnetic Media

    to write data onto magnetic tape or removable media (e.g., recordable DVDs), physically transport the tape or disks to the destination machine, and read them back again. Not as sophisticated communication satellite. as using a geosynchronous

It is often more cost effective, especially for applications in which high bandwidth or cost per bit transported is the key factor. Although the bandwidth characteristics of magnetic tape are excellent, the delay characteristics are poor. Transmission time is measured in minutes or hours, not milliseconds

2.2.2. Twisted Pair It is the oldest and still most common transmission medium. A pair consists of two insulated copper wires (about 1 mm thick each). Its most common application is the telephone system. Twisted pairs can run several km without amplification, but for longer distances, repeaters are needed. It can transmit either analog or digital information. The bandwidth depends on the thickness of the wire and the distance traveled. A few Mbps can be achieved for a few km. Main advantages: adequate performance and low cost.

2.2.2 Twisted Pair Twisting is done because two parallel wires constitute a fine antenna. When the wires are twisted, the waves from different twists cancel out, so the wire radiates less effectively.

2.2.2 Twisted Pair Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Category 3 twisted pairs consist of two insulated wires gently twisted together. Four pairs are grouped together in a plastic sheath to protect the wires and to keep them together.

Category 5: Similar to category 3 pair, but more twists per cm which results in less crosstalk and better quality signal over longer distance making them more suitable for high-speed computer communication

Upcoming categories are 6 and 7, which are capable of handling signals with bandwidth of 250 MHz and 600 MHz respectively

Coaxial Cable
Coaxial cable is the type of transmission media. Two types of coaxial cables widely used are a 50-Ohm cable (Baseband coaxial cable) is used for digital transmission and 75-ohm cable (Broadband) is used for analog transmission and cable television A coaxial cable consists of a stiff copper wire at core surrounded by an insulating material and encased in a cylinder of closely-woven braided mesh and covered in a protective plastic sheath (outer conductor).  The construction and shielding gives it a good combination of high bandwidth and excellent noise immunity. Bandwidth depends on cable length, quality and signal-noise ratio of data  Modern cables have a bandwidth of close to 1GHZ. It is widely used for LANs and cable TV.

2. Physical Layer
2.2 Transmission Media 2.2.3 Baseband Coaxial Cable

Use digital transmission. For 1-km cables, a data rate of 1 to 2 Gbps is feasible.

2.2.4. Broadband coaxial cable This is another kind of coaxial cable (75-ohm) which is used for analog transmission. In the telephone world, ``broadband cable'' refers to anything wider than 4 kHz. In the computer networking world, this term means any cable network using analog transmission. The bandwidth is 300-450 MHz for nearly 100 km. This bandwidth is divided up into multiple channels, frequently the 6-MHz channels for TV broadcasting.

2.2.4. Broadband coaxial cable

To transmit digital signals on an analog network, each interface must contain devices to convert the outgoing bit stream to an analog signal, and the incoming analog signal to a bit stream. 1 bps may occupy roughly 1 Hz of bandwidth. At higher frequencies, many bits per Hz are possible using advanced modulation techniques.

2.2.4 Fiber Optics

    An optical transmission system has three key components: the light source, the transmission medium, and the detector. a pulse of light indicates a 1 bit and the absence of light indicates a 0 bit. The transmission medium is an ultra-thin fiber of glass. The detector generates an electrical pulse when light falls on it.

 By attaching a light source to one end of an optical fiber and a detector to the other, a unidirectional data transmission system that accepts an electrical signal, converts and transmits it by light pulses, and then reconverts the output to an electrical signal at the receiving end.

 When a light ray passes from one medium to another, for example, from fused silica to air, the ray is refracted (bent) at the silica/air boundary, as shown in Fig.2-5(a).  Here we see a light ray incident on the boundary at an angle 1 emerging at an angle 1.  The amount of refracting depends on the properties of the two media (in particular, their indices of refraction).  For angles of incidence above a certain critical value, the light is refracted back into the silica;  none of its escapes into the air.  a light ray incident at or above the critical angle is trapped inside the fiber, as shown in Fig 2-5(b), and can propagate for many kilometers with virtually no loss.  But since any light ray incident on the boundary above the critical angle will be reflected internally, many different rays will be bouncing around at different angles.

 Each ray is said to have a different mode, so a fiber having this property is called a multimode fiber.  If the fibers diameter is reduced to a few wavelengths of light, the fiber acts like a wave guide,  and the light can propagate only in a straight line, without bouncing, yielding a single-mode fiber.  Single-mode fibers are more expensive but are widely used for longer distances.

Fiber Optics

(a) Three examples of a light ray from inside a silica fiber impinging on the air/silica boundary at different angles. (b) Light trapped by total internal reflection.

Fiber Optic Cables

Fiber optic cables are similar to coaxial cable except the braid. At the center is the glass core center through which light propagates In multimode fibers, core is typically 50 microns in diameter and in a single mode 8 to 10 microns Core is surrounded by a glass cladding with a lower index of refraction than the core. The cladding is protected by a thin plastic jacket. Fibers generally grouped in bundles protected by an outer sheath. Fiber Cabling - Where Found? Terrestrial fiber sheath Laid in the ground. Near shore trans oceanic fiber sheaths buried in trenches by a kind of sea plow Deep water just lie at the bottom

Fiber Cables (2)

2.2 Transmission Media 2.2.5 Fiber Optics Multimode fiber

Fiber Optic Cables

Fibers can be connected in 3 ways They can terminate in connectors and be plugged into fiber sockets. Connectors lose 10 to 20 % of light but make it easy to reconfigure systems. They can be spliced mechanically. Mechanical splices take trained personnel about 5minutes and result in 10% light loss Two pieces of fiber can be melted/fused to form a solid connections and small amount of attenuation occurs. Two kinds of light sources are used for signaling - LED (Light Emitting Diodes) and semiconductor lasers. Both differ in properties.

Fiber Cables (2)

A comparison of semiconductor diodes and LEDs as light sources.

Fiber Optic Networks

A fiber optic ring with active repeaters.

Fiber Optic Networks (2)

A passive star connection in a fiber optics network.

Comparison of fiber optics to the copper wire. Positive side: Extremely high bandwidth with little power loss. Not affected by power line surges, electromagnetic interference, or corrosive chemicals in the air can be used in harsh environments unsuitable for coaxial cable. Very thin, a big plus for companies with thousands of cables and bulging cable ducts. Minus side: An unfamiliar technology requiring skills most network engineers do not have. Difficult to splice and even more difficult to tap (how about security ?). Inherently unidirectional, and interfaces are considerably more expensive than electrical interfaces. The future of all fixed data communication for distances of more than a few meters is clearly with fiber.

The Electromagnetic Spectrum

The electromagnetic spectrum and its uses for communication.

2. Physical Layer
2.3 Wireless Transmission 2.3.2 Radio Transmission Radio waves are easy to generate, can travel long distance, and penetrate buildings easily, so they are widely used for communication, both indoors and outdoors. Radio waves are also omnidirectional, meaning that they travel in all directions from the source, so that the transmitter and receiver do not have to be carefully aligned physically. Omnidirectional waves sometimes can have undesired side effects.

2. Physical Layer
2.3 Wireless Transmission 2.3.2 Radio Transmission

In the VLF, LF, and MF bands, radio waves follow the curvature of the earth.

2. Physical Layer
2.3 Wireless Transmission 2.3.2 Radio Transmission At height 100 to 500km

In the HF they bounce off the ionosphere.

2. Physical Layer
2.3 Wireless Transmission 2.3.3 Microwave Transmission Above 100 MHz, the waves travel in straight lines and can therefore be narrowly focused. Concentrating all the energy into a small beam using a parabolic antenna gives a much higher signal to noise ratio. Since the microwaves travel in a straight line, if the towers are too far apart, the earth will get in the way. Consequently, repeaters are needed periodically.

2. Physical Layer
2.3 Wireless Transmission 2.3.3 Microwave Transmission Disadvantages: do not pass through buildings well multipath fading problem (the delayed waves cancel the signal) absorption by rain above 8 GHz severe shortage of spectrum Advantages: no right way is needed (compared to wired media) relatively inexpensive simple to install

2. Physical Layer
2.3 Wireless Transmission 2.3.3 Microwave Transmission ISM (Industrial/Scientific/Medical) Band Transmitters using these bands do not require government licensing. One band is allocated worldwide: 2.400-2.484 GHz. In addition, in the US and Canada, bands also exist from 902-928 MHz and from 5.725-5.850 GHz. These bands are used for cordless telephones, garage door openers, wireless hi-fi speakers, security gates, etc.

2. Physical Layer
2.3 Wireless Transmission 2.3.4 Infrared and Millimeter Waves Unguided infrared and millimeter waves are widely used for short-range communication. The remote controls used on televisions, VCRs, and stereos all use infrared communication. They are relatively directional, cheap, and easy to build, but have a major drawback: they do not pass through solid objects. This property is also a plus. It means that an infrared system in one room will not interfere with a similar system in adjacent room. It is more secure against eavesdropping.

2. Physical Layer
2.3 Wireless Transmission 2.3.5 Lightwave Transmission Affected by fog or rain