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PD 8010 : 2004

Code of practice for pipelines

Offshore Pipelines and how PD 8010 differs from the superseded BS 8010 and how it works in association with BS EN 14161 : 2003

by Bob Inglis (JP Kenny Leader of PSE/17/2 WG2 Pipelines Offshore) PD 8010 Slide 1 of 40

PD 8010-2 Subsea Pipelines

PSE/17/2 WG2 Pipelines Offshore Committee


Bob Inglis, JP Kenny John Lawson, Chevron Texaco Mike Little, Binnie Black & Veatch Tony Barber, Kellogg Brown & Root Martin East, Trevor Jee Associates Graham Stewart, Lloyds Register

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PD 8010-2 Subsea Pipelines


How does PD 8010-2 work in association with BS EN-14161? It has provided a more comprehensive guideline for design, construction and operation of offshore pipelines utilising familiar and recognised methodologies How does PD 8010-2 differ from BS 8010 Part 3? General design methodology is unchanged

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PD 8010-2 Structure (cont.)


Layout of PD 8010 is consistent with that of EN 14161
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. SCOPE NORMATIVE REFERENCES TERMS & DEFINITIONS HEALTH, SAFETY & ASSURANCE DESIGN - SYSTEM & SAFETY DESIGN MECHANICAL INTEGRITY DESIGN LANDFALLS, RISERS & TIE-INS DESIGN MATERIALS & COATINGS DESIGN CORROSION MANAGEMENT CONSTRUCTION FABRICATION & INSTALLATION CONSTRUCTION TESTING PRE-COMMISSIONING & COMMISSIONING OPERATIONS, MAINTENANCE & INTEGRITY MANAGEMENT ABANDONMENT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. SCOPE NORMATIVE REFERENCES TERMS & DEFINITIONS GENERAL PIPELINE SYSTEM DESIGN PIPELINE DESIGN DESIGN OF STATIONS & TERMINALS MATERIALS & COATINGS CORROSION MANAGEMENT CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT TESTING PRE-COMMISSIONING & COMMISSIONING 13. OPERATION,MAINTENANCE & ABANDONMENT

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PD 8010-2 Structure
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. SCOPE NORMATIVE REFERENCES TERMS & DEFINITIONS

Consistent with Part 1

HEALTH, SAFETY & ASSURANCE DESIGN - SYSTEM & SAFETY DESIGN MECHANICAL INTEGRITY DESIGN LANDFALLS, RISERS & TIE-INS DESIGN MATERIALS & COATINGS DESIGN CORROSION MANAGEMENT STATIONS & TERMINALS

10. CONSTRUCTION FABRICATION & INSTALLATION 11. CONSTRUCTION TESTING 12. PRE-COMMISSIONING & COMMISSIONING 13. OPERATIONS, MAINTENANCE & INTEGRITY MANAGEMENT 14. ABANDONMENT

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PD 8010-2 Structure (cont.)

ANNEXES B A (normative) QUALITY ASSURANCE /

A - EXTENT OF PIPELINE SYSTEMS FOR CONVEYING OIL & GAS THAT ARE COVERED BY THIS PART OF PD 8010

C B (normative) RECORDS & DOCUMENT CONTROL / D C (informative) HAZARDS IN PIPELINE DESIGN / E D (normative) SAFETY EVALUATION OF PIPELINES / F E (normative) PIPELINE ROUTE SELECTION / G F (normative) LOADS / H G (informative) BUCKLING / I H (normative) ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS / PLANNING & LEGAL

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Section 1-3 :Scope, References and Definitions

Section 1 defines the extent of pipeline systems covered by PD 8010 Part 2, which is little different from BS 8010 Part 3. Note the code does not cover sea outfalls or fluid umbilicals Sections 2 and 3 cover references and definitions

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Section 4 : Health, Safety & Assurance

Section 4 gives recommendations for goal setting in terms of Health, Safety & Environment Competence Assurance Quality Assurance Design, Construction and Commissioning Assurance Operation and Abandonment Assurance It defines need for competent personnel (C.Eng or equivalent), need for QA/QC systems, document/records control, a design procedure and a design change procedure during operation.

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Section 4 : Design Flowchart (example)


Design Criteria

Basic Design

Mech. Design Checks

Design of Components

Corrosion Design

Design for Operation

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Section 5 : System & Safety

Section 5 defines system limits, (unchanged from BS 8010), fluid categorisation, process design requirements, pressure control (overpressure limited to 110% MAOP), need for a safety evaluation

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Section 5 : Fluid Categorisation

Consistent with Part 1 (obviously!) and effectively so with EN 14161

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Section 6 : Design - Mechanical Integrity


Section 6 provides guidance on: Pressure definition and pressure design of pipe and components Stress based design criteria; Strain based design criteria; Buckling and collapse; Fracture and Fatigue; Bundles and Pipe-in-pipe; Stability (hydrodynamic and geotechnic) Spanning & crossings

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Section 6 : Design and Test Pressure Definition


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Pressure Test Pressure 1.1 x Internal Design Pressure Net Internal Design Pressure Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure Static Head Pressure Hydraulic Gradient Ground Profile Surge Pressure

10. Pressure to overcome friction losses 11. Recommended back pressure 12. Distance along pipeline

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Section 6 : Stress Based Design Criteria

Design Stress Criteria are effectively unchanged from BS 8010 Part 3, as follows:

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Section 6 : Stress Based Design Criteria (cont.)


BS EN 14161 allows a design factor up to 0.83 to be used. The design factors recommended for UK use are given. Higher design factors may be used for all or part of a pipeline system, provided that an equivalent level of safety is achieved throughout the system under consideration and across all relevant limit states. A full risk assessment is recommended if higher design factors are used and might be subject to regulatory review Lower design factors are now extended to include landfalls While BS 8010 stated consideration should be given to reduction in SMYS for temperatures in excess of 1200C, PD 8010 states that account should be taken of the variation of strength with temperature on the basis of verifiable test data appropriate to the material under consideration. Seabed design factors now specifically include tie-ins

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Section 6 : Strain Based Design Criteria


Design Strain Criteria are consistent with BS 8010 Part 3. For application of strain based approach the following are required:
Hoop Stress criterion must be met Plastic component of equivalent strain <0.1%, (ref. state for zero strain is as-built state - post pressure test) Plastic strain only occurs on first operation, not during subsequent cycles Do/tnom<60 Welds possess adequate fracture resistance, demonstrated by direct testing or fracture toughness testing and analysis in accordance with B 7448 and 7910 Weld alignment is controlled Fatigue and fracture analysis is performed Buckling limit states are checked

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Section 6 : Buckling and Collapse

Buckling and Collapse Criteria are unchanged from BS 8010, (although errors in original formulae corrected!)

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Section 6 : Fracture and Fatigue

Fracture Prime means of fracture resistance is by specification of sufficient toughness to ensure running fracture arrest. Fatigue A consistent approach with Part 1 has been adopted. Guidance is given for developing methodology with reference to BS 7608 and BS 7910.

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Section 6 : Pipe-in-pipe, Bundles

Descriptive guidance is given on aspects to be considered in design (Note aspects of flexible pipe design, previously included in BS 8010 Part 3, have now been deleted, reference is made to API RP 17B and ISO 13628, (API 17J for flexible risers))

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Section 6 : Stability, Spanning & Crossings

The basic 2D stability check from BS 8010 Part 3 is retained, with reference made to DNV and AGA for alternative approaches. Need for spans assessment is recognised, no prescriptive methodology laid down Crossings specification of minimum crossing angle of 300 from BS 8010 Part 3 has been omitted

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Section 7 : Design - Landfalls, risers and tie-ins

Most of the narrative from BS 8010 has been retained, Additional reference is made to branch connections (tees, Ys) connectors and to valve selection including actuators Considerations for pigging are included Pipeline protection methods are outlined Reference to the Safety Case Regulations (1996) is included for emergency shut down systems

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Section 8 : Design - Materials and Coatings


Reference standards for linepipe have been updated including high alloy steels (duplex, superduplex) Requirements for fracture toughness, crack arrest highlighted Need to avoid detrimental intermetallic phases (I.e sigma phase) in ferritic/austenitic steels is highlighted. Recommendations for pipeline components (flanges, bends, valves and fittings) included. Coatings, including concrete and insulation materials, addressed

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Section 9 : Design Corrosion Management

Section 9 gives guidelines for establishing a corrosion management programme including the need for in service assessments and maintenance of corrosion mitigation equipment. Both internal and external corrosion issues are described. Reference standards for internal coatings have been updated. Reference is given to DNV-RP-F103 for cathodic protection design, but with a note that ISO/DIS 155892-01 is in preparation

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Section 10 : Construction Fabrication & Installation


The need for establishing safety and construction plans is highlighted and the appointment of competent persons to run construction operations. Reference is made to consideration of EIAs (Environmental Impact Assessment) in advance of construction work. BS 4515-1 and 4515-2 are retained as reference standards for welding Guidance on installation by S-lay, towing, reeling and J-lay is provided the emphasis is on control, planning and management of activities rather than prescriptive criteria

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Section 11 : Construction Testing


The basic requirement for a 24-hour pressure test to 90% SMYS or 1.5 x Design Pressure is unchanged from BS-8010 Part 3, i.e., different from the BS EN 14161 proposed 8-hour hold period. (Note this section is identical in the two parts of PD 8010, hence some of the criteria stated are not relevant to practicalities of offshore lines.) Valves should not be used as end closures unless fully rated to the hydro-test pressure No specific duration is stated for the hold period prior to commencement of the 24 hour hold period, this will require judgement to allow for residual air to go into solution, temperature stabilisation and time dependent pipe straining

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Section 11 : Construction Testing (cont.)

It is recognised that 0.2% allowable air content may be impractical in short sections The 24-hour hold duration may be reduced for sections of less than 20m3 volume Leak testing to 110% MAOP is called for, but use of non-tested golden welds is accepted subject to specific criteria. The number of these should be minimised. The duration of leak testing is not specified, (previously advised as 3 hours typically). It should be sufficient to ensure that all potential leak paths can be verified.

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Section 12 : Pre-commissioning and Commissioning


Environmental considerations for disposal of hydro test water are addressed Options for drying pipelines, as necessary are included, namely Air drying Glycol/methanol swabbing Vacuum drying Requirements for product introduction and start-up are highlighted, in particular the need to ensure operating procedures and safety systems are in place and that formal handover of operational responsibility is made

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Section 13 : Operation, Maint. and Integrity Assurance Man.

This section has been introduced as little guidance was previously given in BS 8010 Part 3. This was more aimed at design and construction. It draws on and expands on the guidance given in BS EN 14161. It states the need for the following plans and gives recommendations for items that should be included, namely: Integrity Management System Operating and Maintenance Plan Incident and Emergency Response Plan

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Section 13 : Operation, Maint. and Integrity Assurance Man.

Emphasis is placed on implementation of the following: Permit-to-work Systems Training Authority and 3rd party liaison programmes Active maintenance of records The importance is noted of a control plan for any in-service changes in operating conditions. A full update of appropriate design documentation is recommended. Above all, the criticality of an active Integrity Assurance Programme is highlighted, especially with regard to changes in the design condition.

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Section 14 : Abandonment

Reference is made to the Pipelines Act (1962) and Pipeline Safety Regulations (1996) in respect of general duties to preserve safety throughout the lifetime of the pipeline (including abandonment) The onus remains with the Operator to ensure an an abandoned line remains safe and that accurate records are maintained.

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Appendix A : Quality Assurance

Appendix A gives recommendations on content of Quality plans for Design, Material Procurement and Construction Phases

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Appendix B : Records and Document Control

Appendix B outlines typical deliverables documentation for the following areas of a pipeline system: Design Procurement Construction Pressure Testing And Pre-commissioning Survey Inspection and Maintenance

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Appendix C : Hazards in Pipeline Design

Appendix C provides information on potential Hazards of which Pipeline System Design should take account, both in terms of internal fluid (gas or liquid phase). It lists a number of external hazards for consideration but is not meant to be an exhaustive list!.

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Appendix D : Safety Evaluation of Pipelines

Appendix D provides guidance on risk assessment of pipeline systems


PROBABILITY RATING Hazard Severity Category 1 2 3 Descriptive Word Catastrophic Critical Marginal Negligible
A Frequent B Reasonabl y Possible C Occasionally D Remote E Extremely Improbable F Impossible

It recommends systematic hazard identification, consequence analysis. Acceptance criteria need to be established and mitigation measures implemented for unacceptable levels of risk. Systematic risk assessments are required which should be maintained and updated through the pipeline lifetime.

1 1 2 3

1 1 2 3

1 2 3 3

2 3 3 3

3 3 3 3

3 3 3 3

WBS -06: PIPELAY PRE-MITIGATION ID/WBS 15 16 17 18


SP8 Construction SP1-8 Infrastructure

POST-MITIGATION RESIDUAL RISK MITIGATION Prob.


SP8 Construction SP1-8 Infrastructure

EVENT

CAUSE

CONSEQUENCE/ Prob.

Prob.

Prob.

RPC

RPC

RPC

RPC

Sev.

Sev.

Sev.

Sev.

Loss of Stinger

Critical Fabrication defect Fatigue Severe weather Collision

Major vessel damage Loss of Pipe Damage to 3rd party lines

Regular diver inspections Marine control procedures

Vessel Collision

Pipe Cargo Barge AHT Survey Vessel Supply Boats 3rd party vessel

Major vessel damage Personal Injury Loss of Pipe

Exclusion zones Marine Control procedures Emergency Response procedures/ Bridging Docs. Training Emergency Response procedures/ Bridging Docs. Stinger monitoring Impose weather criteria

Helicopter crash

Bad weather Poor communications Mechanical failure Bad weather

Major vessel damage Personal injury Loss of Helicopter

Pipe impact on stinger rollers

Damage to concrete coating

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Appendix D : Safety Evaluation of Pipelines (cont.)

HSE levels of individual risk are defined as follows:


Criterion Broadly acceptable Tolerable Unacceptable Risk (frequency of occurrence per annum) <10-6 10-6 - 10-4 <10-4

For risks identified in the tolerable range, mitigation measures should be implemented to reduce the risk as low as reasonably practical (ALARP) PD 8010 Slide 35 of 40

Appendices E - F
Appendix E gives guidance on factors to be considered in routing pipelines and and also for collection of survey data, both geophysical and environmental. Appendix F (effectively reproduced from BS 8010 Part 3) defines different types of load Appendix G reproduces the buckling checks from BS 8010, but with a couple of arithmetical corrections noted which had lain dormant since publication! The need to address upheaval buckling is also included, but only in a qualitative manner, recognising the complexity of the analysis. Appendix H retains the basic approach to derivation of appropriate wave/current conditions and for determining environmental loads, I.e. based on well used methodologies. The use of alternative approaches, (such as DNV), is also recognised.

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PD 8010-2 : One Year On.

To date, from PSE/17/2 committee viewpoint, there has been little feedback from the industry! This either implies acceptance and approval of the code requirements, or apathy!

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PD 8010-2 : One Year On.


Issues raised to date :
Strain based design criteria (unchanged from BS8010 Part 3) are dated and perhaps dont reflect current state of the art. Guidance and applicability to HP/HT pipelines is limited, since a strict ASD approach is limited. Applicability for deep water applications is limited Hydrotesting criteria are constraining, (especially in regard to HP/HT applications) There is a never ending battle in keeping cross references up to date!

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PD 8010-2 : Future Plans

There are no immediate plans for issue of updates, but the committee remains committed to responding to industry feedback This involves dealing with specific issues raised and, if necessary, issue of amendments and clarifications (none identified to date) Long term, the committee may review the structure of the code and expand specific topics, including pipeline operational issues, adoption of limit state design techniques and continued harmonisation with other international standards

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Close

BS 8010 Part 3 was never significantly broke, so didnt require significantly fixing! The introduction of BS EN 14161 has nevertheless necessitated a revision of the widely accepted and respected British Standard. This permits engineers to continue to design, construct and operate pipelines in a safe manner. The industry has accepted the implementation of PD 8010-2 as it has allowed business as usual to continue! Nevertheless the committee recognises the need to reflect industry needs and will continue to review and update the code as required.

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