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Ron Jake N.

Venturanza

1930 - U.S Congressional elections 1931 independence mission January 17, 1933 - passage

Authored by a Representative and 2 Senators named: - Representative Butler B. Hare -Senators Harry B. Hawes and Bronson Cutting

Provided by ten-year transition period According to Manuel L. Quezon and the Senate President Sergio Osmena, this act was not economically beneficial to the country. The Filipino people were torn on the issue whether or not to approve the HareHawes Cutting Act.

Antis those in favor of Manuel Quezon. Pros those who supported Senators Osmena and Roxas. October 17, 1933 Philippine Legislature passed the Concurrent Resolution No. 46 rejecting the Hare-Hawes Cutting Act.

Philippine Legislature specified the following points:


 The provisions stated in the law regarding the trade

relations of the two countries were disadvantageous to the Philippines;  The clause which restricted Filipino immigration to America was objectionable and offensive;  The power of the America High Commissioner was too indefinite; and  The retention of the military and naval reservations of America in the Philippines violated the dignity and sovereign rights of the country.

November 1933 Manuel Quezon became responsible in obtaining better provisions of independence law from the US Congress. May 1, 1934 the passage of the law. This law was introduce by Millard Tydings and John McDuffie. This was the revised copy of Hare-HawesCutting Act

Steps that led to the Philippine independence:


1. The acceptance of the law; 2. The calling of a constitutional convention not later than October 1, 1934 for the purpose of drafting the Constitution of the Philippines; 3. The submission of the Constitution of the President of the US within two years; 4. The submission of the Constitution to a plebiscite for ratification within two months after its approval by the President of the United States;

Steps that led to the Philippine independence:


5. The election of the Commonwealth officials not later than six months after the plebiscite; 6. The proclamation of the result of the election and the inauguration of the Commonwealth of the Philippines; and 7. The proclamation of Philippine Independence on the 4th of July following the tenth year inauguration of the Commonwealth government;

The following are the principles of this law: 1. The government must be republican in form; 2. Must include the Bill of Rights; 3. During the ten-year transition period, the country would remain as an American territory; 4. All Filipino citizens including its officials would owe allegiance to America;

5. American citizens in the Philippine would enjoy the same civil rights by which the Filipino people enjoyed; 6. All laws passed by the Commonwealth legislature affecting currency, foreign trade, and emigration had to be submitted to the President of the US for his approval and he can suspend the same, including contract and executive address;

7. The foreign affairs of the country were subjected under the direct control and supervision of the President of the US; 8. The President of the US would be represented in the Philippines by an American High Commissioner, while the Philippines was to be represented to the US by a Filipino Resident Commissioner. 9. The Philippine President was to make an annual report to the US President and Congress;

10. The supreme court of America would have authority to review important cases tried by Supreme Court of the Philippines, including those involving the constitution; 11. Trade relations between the Philippines and the US must be governed by the TydingsMcDuffie Law; and 12. The President of the US was authorized to negotiate with foreign powers for the perpetual neutralization of the future Republic of the Philippines

Served as the Constitution for the Philippine Commonwealth. March 24, 1934 President Franklin D. Roosevelt approved the Tydings-McDuffie Law. May 5, 1934 a bill calling for a constitutional convention was approved. February 8, 1935 the Constitution was approved by the convention and signed on February 19, 1935.

March 23, 1935 President Roosevelt approved the Constitution, May 14, 1935 - the Constitution was ratified by the Filipinos. Government was divided into 3 co-equal branches:
 Executive  Legislative  judicial

February 27, 1945 the establishment of the Commonwealth Government July 4, 1946 the inauguration of the Republic of the Philippines. 1939 1935 Constitution was amended where an Ordinance was appended to the Constitution in accordance with the TydingsKocialkowski of August 7, 1939.

1940 - 1935 Constitution was amended again. 1947 the last amendment of 1935 Constitution were the Parity Agreement adopted.

Provision of the 1935 Constitution


The Filipino people, imploring the aid of divine providence, in order to establish a government that shall embody their ideals, conserve and develop the patrimony of the nation, promote the general welfare, and secure to themselves and there posterity the blessings of independence under a regime of justice, liberty, and democracy do ordain and promulgate this constitution.

The 1935 Constitution contains 17 Articles: Article I The National Territory Article II Declaration of Principles Article III Bill of Rights Article IV Citizenships Article V Suffrage Article VI Legislative Department Article VII Executive Department Article VIII Judicial Department

Article IX Impeachment Article X General Auditing Office Article XI Civil Service Article XII Conversation & Utilization of Natural Resources Article XIII General Provisions Article XIV Amendments Article XV Transitory Provisions Article XVI Special Provisions Effective Upon the Proclamation of the Independence of the Philippines Article XVII The Commonwealth of the Republic

Ordinance Appended to the Constitution (OAC) OAC introduced by the dictatorial phrase:
Notwithstanding the provision of the Foregoing Constitution

September 17, 1935 first national election November 15, 1935 The Commonwealth of the Philippines was inaugurated in Manila. Two advisers of Quezon:

Governor-General Francis and General Douglas MacArthur

Security Forces were developed

Changes in his government:


- Old offices and bureaus were either abolished or reorganized

Created offices:
 National Economic Council  Census Commission  Commission of Mindanao and Sulu  The Institute of National Language

Filipinized the judiciary branch from the lowest court to Supreme Court. Classification of judges were raised and their salaries were increased. Decreased the justices in the Supreme Court to seven (7). Two (2) additional courts were created which are: the Court of Appeals and the Court of Industrial Relations.

Enacted laws to protect the rights of the working class. Developed strategies in the public education system:
 Education Filipinization Program  Technical-Vocational Education Program  Character Education Offering  Establishment of Free and Compulsory Primary

Education

Laid down the foundation of moral and cultural rebirth. Copies of Code of Ethics were distributed freely to the people. Promulgated Executive Order No. 134.