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What is hydrocarbon ?

A

compound made up of hydrogen and carbon only is called hydrocarbon.

(HYDROGEN + CARBON = HYDROCARBON)

Hydrocarbons

Saturated

Unsaturated

Saturated Hydrocarbons (Alkane)


A Hydrocarbon is an organic compound that contains only the elements hydrogen and carbon. In a saturated hydrocarbon, all the bonds are single bonds. Alkane is another name for a saturated hydrocarbon.

Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

Alkene

Alkyne

ALKENE
 The hydrocarbon in

which the two carbon atoms are connected by a double bond is termed as ALKENE.

ALKYNE
A

hydrocarbon in which two carbons are connected by a triple bond is termed as ALKYNE

Characteristics of Hydrocarbons
Factors that determine the properties of a hydrocarbon are:  The number of carbon atoms  How the atoms are arranged: Straight chain Branched chain Ring


 A

Straight Chains
hydrocarbon can contain one carbon atom, as in methane or thousands of carbon atoms, as in cellulose
Methane ethane propane butane pentane hexane

One carbon Two carbon Three carbon Four carbon Five carbons Six carbon




Branched Chains

The structural formula for certain alkanes can differ.  Compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulas are isomers.

Cyclic Hydrocarbons

Saturated
(Cyclohexane)

Unsaturated
(Benzene)

SATURATED


The hydrocarbons in which carbon atoms are arranged in a form of a ring and a single bond present in between the carbon atoms is termed as saturated CYCLIC HYDROCARBON.

UNSATURATED


The hydrocarbons in which the carbon atoms are arranged in a form of a ring and a double bond present in between the carbon atoms is termed as UNSATURATED CYCLIC HYDROCARBONS(BENZENE).

Homologous series
The compound having same

functional group , same chemical properties and each member differs from successive member by CH2 group.

Functional Group
Hetero Atom Functional Group Formulae of Functional Group -cl,-br -OH -CHO -CO -COOH

Cl/Br Oxygen

HaloChloro/Bromo 1.Alcohol 2.Aldehyde 3.Ketone 4.Carboxylic acid

ALCOHOL
ALCOHOL are carbon compounds containing OH group attached to carbon atom .  The general of alcohol is R-OH where R is an alkyl group and OH is a functional group.


CARBOXYLIC ACID
 The compounds

containing carboxyl group are known as CARBOXYLIC

ACID
 The general

formula is Cn H2n+1-

COOH.

ALDEHYDE AND KETONES


ALDEHYDE AND KETONES are compounds containing carbonyl group .  In aldehydes ,carbon of C=O group is attached to an alkyl group and a hydrogen atom.  In ketones , carbon of carbonyl group is attached to 2 alkyl group. The two alkyl groups may be same or different.


PROPERTIES OF ETHANOL


PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

PROPERTIES OF ETHANOIC ACID

What are esters?


Esters are derived from carboxylic acids. A carboxylic acid contains the -COOH group, and in an ester the hydrogen in this group is replaced by a hydrocarbon group of some kind. We shall just be looking at cases where it is replaced by an alkyl group, but it could equally well be an aryl group (one based on a benzene ring). A common ester - ethyl ethanoate The most commonly discussed ester is ethyl ethanoate. In this case, the hydrogen in the -COOH group has been replaced by an ethyl group. The formula for ethyl ethanoate is: Notice that the ester is named the opposite way around from the way the formula is written. The "ethanoate" bit comes from ethanoic acid. The "ethyl" bit comes from the ethyl group on the end.

ESTERFICATION
CH3COOH + CH3CH2OH
CH3 COOC2H5+H2O

THE REACTION IN WHICH CARBOXYLIC ACID COMBINES WITH ALCOHOL TO FORM AN ESTER IS KNOWN AS ESTERFICATION.

Saponification
produces soap from fatty acid derivatives. Traditionally, saponification involves hydrolysis of esters under basic conditions to form an alcohol and the salt of a carboxylic acid (carboxylates). Saponifiable substances are those that can [1] be converted into soap.

Saponification is a chemical process that

SAPONIFICATION
 THE PROCESS IN WHICH OIL OR FATS IS HYDROLYSED WITH SODIUM HYDROXIDE TO GET SOAP AND GLYCEROL IS CALLED SAPONIFICATION.