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Chapter 5, Part B

Failure Modes
MET 210W
E. Evans/ R.Michael
Ductility and Percent Elongation
Ductility is the degree to which a material
will deform before ultimate fracture.
Percent elongation is used as a measure
of ductility.
Ductile Materials have %E > 5%
Brittle Materials have %E < 5%
For machine members subject to repeated
or shock or impact loads, materials with
%E > 12% are recommended.
Ductile materials - extensive plastic deformation and
energy absorption (toughness) before fracture
Brittle materials - little plastic deformation and low energy
absorption before failure
Ductile
fracture is
desirable!
Classification:
Ductile:
warning before
fracture
Brittle:
No
warning
DUCTILE VS BRITTLE FAILURE
(a) (b) (c)
Resulting
fracture
surfaces
(steel)
particles serve as void
nucleation sites.
50 m
DUCTILE FAILURE
1 m = 1 X 10
-6
m = 0.001 mm
Evolution to failure:
cup and cone fracture
Failure Prediction Methods
Static Loads
Brittle Materials - FT:
Maximum Normal Stress - Uniaxial stress
Modified Mohr - Biaxial stress
Ductile Materials - FT:
Yield Strength - Uniaxial stress
Maximum Shear Strength - Biaxial stress
Distortion Energy - Biaxial or Triaxial
Predictions of Failure
Fluctuating Loads
Brittle Materials:
Not recommended
Ductile Materials:
Goodman
Gerber
Soderberg
Maximum Normal Stress
Uniaxial Static Loads on Brittle Material:
In tension:
In compression:
Static
Load
Brittle Material
N
S
K
ut
d t
= = o o o
max
N
S
K
uc
d t
= = o o o
max
max
o
ut
S
N =
DESIGN:
ANALYSIS:
max
o
ut
S
N =
DESIGN:
ANALYSIS:
45 Shear Diagonal
Modified Mohr Method
Biaxial Static Stress on Brittle Materials
o
1
o
2
Stress concentrations
applied to stresses before
making the circle
o
1
o
2
S
ut
S
ut
S
uc
S
uc
o
1,
o
2
Brittle materials often have a
much larger compressive
strength than tensile strength
Failure when outside of shaded area
Yield Strength Method
Uniaxial Static Stress on Ductile Materials
In tension:
In compression:
For most ductile materials, S
yt
= S
yc
Static
Load
Ductile Material
N
S
yt
d
= o o
max
N
S
yc
d
= o o
max
DESIGN:
ANALYSIS:
DESIGN:
ANALYSIS:
max
o
yt
S
N =
max
o
yc
S
N =
Maximum Shear Stress
Biaxial Static Stress on Ductile Materials
Ductile materials begin to yield when the maximum shear stress in a load-carrying
component exceeds that in a tensile-test specimen when yielding begins.
Somewhat conservative approach use the Distortion Energy Method
for a more precise failure estimate
N 2
S
N
S
y ys
d max
= = t t
o
avg,
t
max
max
t
ys
S
N =
DESIGN:
ANALYSIS:
Distortion Energy
Best predictor of failure for
ductile materials under static
loads or under completely
reversed normal, shear or
combined stresses.
Shear
Diagonal
o
1
o
2
2 1
2
2
2
1
o o o + o = o'
o = von Mises stress
Failure: o > S
y
Design: o o
d
= S
y
/N
ANALYSIS:
N = S
y
/o
Static Biaxial or Triaxial Stress on Ductile Materials
S
y
S
y
S
y
S
y
Distortion Energy
von Mises Stress
Alternate Form
For uniaxial stress when o
y
= 0,
Triaxial Distortion Energy (o
1
> o
2
> o
3
)
2 2 2
3
xy y x y x
' t + o o o + o = o
2 2
3
xy x
' t + o = o
2
2 3
2
1 3
2
1 2
2
2
) ( ) ( ) ( ' o o + o o + o o

'
+

'

= o
Comparison of Static Failure
Theories:
Maximum Shear most conservative
Shows no failure zones
Summary Static Failure Theories:
Brittle materials fail on planes of max
normal stress:
Max Normal Stress Theory
Modified Mohr Theory
Ductile materials fail on planes of max
shear stress:
Max shear stress theory
Distortion energy theory
See summary table!
Do example problems for static loading!
Brittle failure or ductile failure? Key: is the fracture surface
on a plane of max shear or max normal stress.
TORQUE:
DUCTILE BRITTLE
Brittle Ductile
AXIAL
S
n

Goodman Method
o
m
o
a
-S
y
S
y
S
y
S
u
FATIGUE
FAILURE REGION
NO FATIGUE
FAILURE REGION
Goodman Line
0
Yield Line
1 =
o
+
'
o
u
m
n
a
S S
Good predictor of failure in ductile materials
experiencing fluctuating stress
S
n
= actual endurance
strength
o
a
= alternating stress
o
m
= mean stress
S
n
/N
S
n

Goodman Diagram
o
m
o
a
-S
y
S
y
S
y
S
u
FATIGUE
FAILURE REGION
Goodman Line
0
Yield Line
1 =
o
+
'
o
u
m
n
a
S S
S
u
/N
N S S
K
u
m
n
a t
1
=
o
+
'
o
Safe Stress Line
Safe Stress Line
SAFE ZONE
S
n
= actual endurance strength
o
a
= alternating stress
o
m
= mean stress
Actual Endurance Strength
S
n
= S
n
(C
m
)(C
st
)(C
R
)(C
S
)
S
n
= actual endurance strength (ESTIMATE)
S
n
= endurance strength from Fig. 5-8
C
m
= material factor (pg. 174)
C
st
= stress type: 1.0 for bending
0.8 for axial tension
0.577 for shear
C
R
= reliability factor
C
S
= size factor
Actual S
n
Example
Find the endurance strength for a valve stem
made of AISI 4340 OQT 900F steel.
62 ksi
From Fig. A4-5.
S
u
= 190 ksi
From Fig. 5-8.
S
n
= 62 ksi
(machined)
Actual S
n
Example Continued
S
n
= S
n
(C
m
)(C
st
)(C
R
)(C
S
)
= 62 ksi(1.0)(.8)(.81)(.94) = 37.8 ksi
Size Factor, Fig. 5-9
Wrought Steel
Axial Tension
Reliability, Table 5-1
99% Probability
S
n
is at or above the
calculated value
S
n
,Table 5-8
Actual S
n

Estimate
Guessing: diameter } .5
MAX = 30.3
Example: Problem 5-53.
Find a suitable titanium alloy. N = 3
42 mm DIA
30 mm
DIA
1.5 mm Radius
F varies from 20 to 30.3 kN
+
-
F
O
R
C
E
MIN = 20
TIME
kN .
.
mean 15 25
2
20 3 30
=
+
=
kN .
.
alt 15 5
2
20 3 30
=

=
Example: Problem 5-53 continued.
Find the mean stress:
Find the alternating stress:
Stress concentration from App. A15-1:
MPa 35.6 =
x
= o
2
m
) mm 30 (
4
N 150 , 25
MPa 7.3 =
x
= o
2
a
) mm 30 (
4
N 150 , 5
2.3 K
t
= = = = = 05 .
mm 30
mm 5 . 1
d
r
; 4 . 1
mm 30
mm 42
d
D
Example: Problem 5-53 continued.
S
n
data not available for titanium so we will guess!
Assume S
n
= S
u
/4 for extra safety factor.
TRY T2-65A, S
u
= 448 MPa, S
y
= 379 MPa
3.36 = =
= = +
=
o
+
'
o
297 .
1
N
297 .
N
1
MPa 448
MPa 6 . 35
) 4 / MPa 448 )( 86 (. 8 .
) MPa 3 . 7 ( 3 . 2
N
1
S S
K
u
m
n
a t
(Eqn 5-20)
Tension
Size
Reliability 50%
3.36 is good, need further information on Sn for titanium.
MAX = 1272 N-m
Example:
Find a suitable steel for N = 3 & 90% reliable.
T varies from 848 N-m to 1272 N-m
+
-
T
O
R
Q
U
E
MIN = 848 N-m
TIME
m N 1060
2
848 1272
mean =
+
=
m N 212
2
848 1272
alt =

=
50 mm DIA
30 mm
DIA
3 mm Radius
T = 1060 212 N-m
Example: continued.
Stress concentration from App. A15-1:
Find the mean shear stress:
Find the alternating shear stress:
MPa 200 =
x

= = t
3
m
mm
p
m
m
) mm 30 (
16
) 1000 ( m N 1060
Z
T
MPa 40 =

= = t
3
p
a
a
mm 5301
mm N 212000
Z
T
1.38 K
t
= = = = = 1 .
mm 30
mm 3
d
r
; 667 . 1
mm 30
mm 50
d
D
Example: continued.
So, t = 200 40 MPa. Guess a material.
TRY: AISI 1040 OQT 400F
S
u
= 779 MPa, S
y
= 600 MPa, %E = 19%
Verify that t
max
S
ys
:
t
max
= 200 + 40 = 240 MPa S
ys
} 600/2 = 300MPa
Find the ultimate shear stress:
S
us
= .75S
u
= .75(779 MPa) = 584 MPa
Ductile
Example: continued.
Assume machined surface, S
n
} 295 MPa
Find actual endurance strength:
S
sn
= S
n
(C
m
)(C
st
)(C
R
)(C
S
)
= 295 MPa(1.0)(.577)(.9)(.86) = 132 MPa
S
n
Wrought steel
Shear Stress
90% Reliability
Size 30 mm
(Fig. 5-8)
Example: continued.
Goodman:
1.31 = =
= = +
=
t
+
'
t
7606 .
1
N
7606 .
N
1
MPa 584
MPa 200
MPa 132
) MPa 40 ( 38 . 1
N
1
S S
K
su
m
sn
a t
(Eqn. 5-28)
No Good!!! We wanted N > 3
Need a material with Su about 3 times bigger than this
guess or/and a better surface finish on the part.
Example: continued.
Guess another material.
TRY: AISI 1340 OQT 700F
S
u
= 1520 MPa, S
y
= 1360 MPa, %E = 10%
Find the ultimate shear stress:
S
us
= .75S
u
= .75(779 MPa) = 584 MPa
Find actual endurance strength:
S
sn
= S
n
(C
m
)(C
st
)(C
R
)(C
S
)
= 610 MPa(1.0)(.577)(.9)(.86) = 272 MPa
Ductile
S
n
wrought
shear
reliable
size
Example: continued.
Goodman:
2.64 = =
= = +
=
t
+
'
t
378 .
1
N
378 .
N
1
MPa 1140
MPa 200
MPa 272
) MPa 40 ( 38 . 1
N
1
S S
K
su
m
sn
a t
(Eqn. 5-28)
No Good!!! We wanted N > 3
Decision Point:
Accept 2.64 as close enough to 3.0?
Go to polished surface?
Change dimensions? Material? (Cant do much better in
steel since S
n
does not improve much for S
u
> 1500 MPa
Example: Combined Stress Fatigue
RBE
2/11/97
Example: Combined Stress Fatigue Contd
RBE
2/11/97
Repeated one direction
PIPE: TS4 x .237 WALL
MATERIAL: ASTM A242
Equivalent
DEAD WEIGHT:
SIGN + ARM + POST = 1000#
(Compression)
Reversed,
Repeated
45
Bending
Example: Combined Stress Fatigue Contd
Stress Analysis:
psi 5 . 315
in 17 . 3
# 1000
A
P
2
= = = o
Dead Weight:
psi 09 . 63
in 17 . 3
# 200
A
P
2
= = = o
Vertical from Wind:
(Static)
(Cyclic)
psi 8 . 9345
in 21 . 3
) in 60 ( # 500
Z
M
3
= = = o
Bending:
(Static)
Example: Combined Stress Fatigue Contd
Stress Analysis:
Torsion:
(Cyclic) psi 3 . 3115
) in 21 . 3 ( 2
) in 100 ( # 200
Z
T
3
P
= = = t
Stress Elements: (Viewed from +y)
CYCLIC:
STATIC:
315.5 psi
9345.8 psi
63.09 psi Repeated
One Direction
t = 3115.3 psi
Fully Reversed
x
z
x
z
Example: Combined Stress Fatigue Contd
Mean Stress:
9345.8
-315.5
-31.5
8998.8
psi
Static
Repeated / 2
Alternating Stress:
t
(CW)
o
1
o
t
max
psi 4 . 4499
2
psi 8 . 8998
max
= = t
+
TIME
-
S
t
r
e
s
s
MIN = -63.09 psi
o
m
o
a
t
(CW)
o
(-31.5,-3115.3)
(0,-3115.3)
t
max
psi 34 . 3115
max
= t
Example: Combined Stress Fatigue Contd
Determine Strength:
Try for N = 3 some uncertainty
Size Factor? OD = 4.50 in, Wall thickness = .237 in
ID = 4.50 2(.237) = 4.026 in
Max. stress at OD. The stress declines to 95% at
95% of the OD = .95(4.50) = 4.275 in. Therefore,
amount of steel at or above 95% stress is the same
as in 4.50 solid.
ASTM A242: S
u
= 70 ksi, S
y
= 50 ksi, %E = 21%
t 3/4 Ductile
Example: Combined Stress Fatigue Contd
We must use S
su
and S
sn
since this is a combined
stress situation. (Case I1, page 197)
S
us
= .75S
u
= .75(70 ksi) = 52.5 ksi
S
sn
= S
n
(C
m
)(C
st
)(C
R
)(C
S
)
= 23 ksi(1.0)(.577)(.9)(.745) = 8.9 ksi
Hot Rolled
Surface
Wrought steel
Combined or Shear Stress
90% Reliability
Size 4.50 dia
Example: Combined Stress Fatigue Contd
Safe Line for Goodman Diagram:
t
a
= S
sn
/ N = 8.9 ksi / 3 = 2.97 ksi
t
m
= S
su
/ N = 52.5 ksi / 3 = 17.5 ksi
Mean Stress, t
m
0 15 10 5 20
0
5
10
A
l
t
e
r
n
a
t
i
n
g

S
t
r
e
s
s
,

t
a
2.29 = =
= = +
=
t
+
'
t
426 .
1
N
426 .
N
1
psi 52500
psi 4 . 4499
psi 8900
) psi 3 . 3115 ( 0 . 1
N
1
S S
K
su
m
sn
a t
S
u
/N
S
sn
/N
S
u
S
sn
t
mean
= 4499.4
3115.3
K
t
t
alt
Design Factors, N
(a.k.a. Factor of Safety)
N = 1.25 to 2.0 Static loading, high level of confidence in all design
data
N = 2.0 to 2.5 Dynamic loading, average confidence in all design
data
N = 2.5 to 4.0 Static or dynamic with uncertainty about loads,
material properties, complex stress state, etc
N = 4.0 or higher Above + desire to provide extra safety
FOR DUCTILE
MATERIALS:
Failure
Theory:
When Use? Failure When: Design Stress:
1. Maximum
Normal Stress
Brittle Material/ Uniaxial
Static Stress
2. Yield Strength
(Basis for MCH T
213)
Ductile Material/
Uniaxial Static Normal
Stress
3. Maximum Shear
Stress (Basis for
MCH T 213)
Ductile Material/ Bi-
axial Static Stress
4. Distortion Energy
(von Mises)
Ductile Material/ Bi-
axial Static Stress
5. Goodman
Method
Ductile Material/
Fluctuating Normal
Stress (Fatigue Loading)
Ductile Material/
Fluctuating Shear Stress
(Fatigue Loading)
Ductile Material/
Fluctuating Combined
Stress (Fatigue Loading)
on) (for tensi
max
Sut Kt > - = o o
n) compressio (for
max
Suc Kt > - = o o
on) (for tensi / N Sut
d
= o
n) compressio (for / N Suc
d
= o
on) (for tensi
max
Syt > o
material ought ductile/wr for Syc Syt : Note
n) compressio (for
max
}
> Syc o
on) (for tensi /
d
N Syt = o
n) compressio (for /
d
N Syc = o
Sy/2 Sys where
max
} > Sys t Sy/2 Sys where / } = N Sys
d
t
stress Mises von ' where
'
2 1
2
2
2
1
=
> + =
o
o o o o o Sy
13 - 5 Figure
/ '
see
N Sy
d
= o
1
'
> +
u
m
n
a t
S S
K o o
5.15 Figure
1
'
see
N S S
K
u
m
n
a t
= +
o o
u su n sn
su
m
sn
a t
S S S S
S S
K
75 . 0 and 577 . 0
here w 1
' '
'
= =
> +
t t
u su n sn
su
m
sn
a t
S S S S
N S S
K
75 . 0 and 577 . 0
here w
1
' '
'
= =
= +
t t
u su n sn
su
m
sn
a t
S S S S
S S
K
75 . 0 and 577 . 0
re whe 1
) ( ) (
' '
max
'
max
= =
> +
t t
u su n sn
su
m
sn
a t
S S S S
S S
K
75 . 0 and 577 . 0
re whe 1
) ( ) (
' '
max
'
max
= =
> +
t t
Failure Theories for STATIC Loading Failure Theories for STATIC Loading
Uniaxial: Bi-axial:
or
Failure
Theory:
When Use? Failure When: Design Stress:
1. Maximum
Normal Stress
Brittle Material/ Uniaxial
Static Stress
2. Yield Strength
(Basis for MCH T
213)
Ductile Material/
Uniaxial Static Normal
Stress
3. Maximum Shear
Stress (Basis for
MCH T 213)
Ductile Material/ Bi-
axial Static Stress
4. Distortion Energy
(von Mises)
Ductile Material/ Bi-
axial Static Stress
5. Goodman
Method
a. Ductile Material/
Fluctuating Normal
Stress (Fatigue Loading)
b. Ductile Material/
Fluctuating Shear Stress
(Fatigue Loading)
c. Ductile Material/
Fluctuating Combined
Stress (Fatigue Loading)
on) (for tensi
max
Sut Kt > - = o o
n) compressio (for
max
Suc Kt > - = o o
on) (for tensi / N Sut
d
= o
n) compressio (for / N Suc
d
= o
on) (for tensi
max
Syt > o
material ought ductile/wr for Syc Syt : Note
n) compressio (for
max
}
> Syc o
on) (for tensi /
d
N Syt = o
n) compressio (for /
d
N Syc = o
Sy/2 Sys where
max
} > Sys t Sy/2 Sys where / } = N Sys
d
t
stress Mises von ' where
'
2 1
2
2
2
1
=
> + =
o
o o o o o Sy
13 - 5 Figure
/ '
see
N Sy
d
= o
1
'
> +
u
m
n
a t
S S
K o o
5.15 Figure
1
'
see
N S S
K
u
m
n
a t
= +
o o
u su n sn
su
m
sn
a t
S S S S
S S
K
75 . 0 and 577 . 0
here w 1
' '
'
= =
> +
t t
u su n sn
su
m
sn
a t
S S S S
N S S
K
75 . 0 and 577 . 0
here w
1
' '
'
= =
= +
t t
u su n sn
su
m
sn
a t
S S S S
S S
K
75 . 0 and 577 . 0
re whe 1
) ( ) (
' '
max
'
max
= =
> +
t t
u su n sn
su
m
sn
a t
S S S S
S S
K
75 . 0 and 577 . 0
re whe 1
) ( ) (
' '
max
'
max
= =
> +
t t
Failure Theories for FATIGUE Loading Failure Theories for FATIGUE Loading
Failure
Theory:
When Use? Failure When: Design Stress:
1. Maximum
Normal Stress
Brittle Material/ Uniaxial
Static Stress
2. Yield Strength
(Basis for MCH T
213)
Ductile Material/
Uniaxial Static Normal
Stress
3. Maximum Shear
Stress (Basis for
MCH T 213)
Ductile Material/ Bi-
axial Static Stress
4. Distortion Energy
(von Mises)
Ductile Material/ Bi-
axial Static Stress
5. Goodman
Method
a. Ductile Material/
Fluctuating Normal
Stress (Fatigue Loading)
b. Ductile Material/
Fluctuating Shear Stress
(Fatigue Loading)
c. Ductile Material/
Fluctuating Combined
Stress (Fatigue Loading)
on) (for tensi
max
Sut Kt > - = o o
n) compressio (for
max
Suc Kt > - = o o
on) (for tensi / N Sut
d
= o
n) compressio (for / N Suc
d
= o
on) (for tensi
max
Syt > o
material ought ductile/wr for Syc Syt : Note
n) compressio (for
max
}
> Syc o
on) (for tensi /
d
N Syt = o
n) compressio (for /
d
N Syc = o
Sy/2 Sys where
max
} > Sys t Sy/2 Sys where / } = N Sys
d
t
stress Mises von ' where
'
2 1
2
2
2
1
=
> + =
o
o o o o o Sy
13 - 5 Figure
/ '
see
N Sy
d
= o
1
'
> +
u
m
n
a t
S S
K o o
5.15 Figure
1
'
see
N S S
K
u
m
n
a t
= +
o o
u su n sn
su
m
sn
a t
S S S S
S S
K
75 . 0 and 577 . 0
here w 1
' '
'
= =
> +
t t
u su n sn
su
m
sn
a t
S S S S
N S S
K
75 . 0 and 577 . 0
here w
1
' '
'
= =
= +
t t
u su n sn
su
m
sn
a t
S S S S
S S
K
75 . 0 and 577 . 0
re whe 1
) ( ) (
' '
max
'
max
= =
> +
t t
u su n sn
su
m
sn
a t
S S S S
S S
K
75 . 0 and 577 . 0
re whe 1
) ( ) (
' '
max
'
max
= =
> +
t t
General Comments:
1. Failure theory to use depends on material (ductile vs. brittle) and type of loading (static or
dynamic). Note, ductile if elongation > 5%.
2. Ductile material static loads ok to neglect Kt (stress concentrations)
3. Brittle material static loads must use Kt
4. Terminology:
Su (or Sut) = ultimate strength in tension
Suc = ultimate strength in compression
Sy = yield strength in tension
Sys = 0.5*Sy = yield strength in shear
Sus = 0.75*Su = ultimate strength in shear
Sn = endurance strength = 0.5*Su or get from Fig 5-8 or S-N curve
S

n = estimated actual endurance strength = Sn(C


m
) (C
st
) (C
R
) (C
s
)
Ssn = 0.577* Sn = estimated actual endurance strength in shear
5.9 What Failure Theory to Use: