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WAXES

Composition


Natural waxes


  

Hydrocarbons of paraffin & microcrystalline wax series Carnauba Candelilla resins

Derived from mineral, vegetable, or animal origins

Synthetic waxes


Chemically synthesized analogs of natural wax molecules More homogenous and pure

paraffin
  

Main ingredient 40 to 60 wt% Derived from high-boiling fractions of petroleum

Gum dammar/dammar resin




Natural resin added to paraffin to improve its smoothness in molding & render it more resistant to cracking and flaking Increases toughness of the wax and enhances the smoothness & luster of the surface

carnauba


Fine powder on the leaves of certain tropical palms Combined with paraffin to decrease the flow at mouth temp. Contributes to the glossiness of the wax surface

candelilla


Added to paraffin to partially or entirely replace the carnauba wax

ceresin


May replace part of the paraffin to modify the toughness and carving characteristics of the wax

Desirable properties
  

  

When softened, the wax should be uniform. Should have a contrasting color. No flakiness or similar surface roughening when the wax is bent and molded after softening. The wax can be carved to a very thin layer. Leaves no solid residue after burn out. Should be completely rigid and dimensionally stable after manipulation.

 

Flow Thermal properties


 

Low thermal conductivity High coefficient of thermal expansion Elastic memory

Wax distortion


TYPES


Baseplate provided in sheet form




Used to establish the initial arch form in the construction of complete dentures

 

Bite wax - used to record the occlusal surfaces of teeth as an aid to establish maxillomandibular relationships Boxing wax sheet wax


Used as a border at the perimeter of an impression to provide an enclosed boundary for the base of the cast to be made from a poured material such as gypsum or resin Used to make a type of dental impression Dental impression wax

Corrective wax thermoplastic wax


 

Dental wax a low-molecular-weight ester of fatty acids derived from natural & synthetic components such as petroleum derivatives that soften to a plastic state at a relatively low temp.

Inlay wax specialized dental wax




Can be applied to dies to form direct or indirect patterns for the lost-wax technique used for casting metals or hot pressing of ceramics Exhibits relatively good adhesion to dry, clean surfaces when it is heated to a plastic condition

Sticky wax a variety of dental wax




Types of Inlay Wax




  

Designed to maintain uniform workability over a wide temp. range thereby facilitating accurate adaptation under pressure. Can be carved easily without chipping or flaking. Regular or soft type indirect work at room temp or in cool weather. Harder or medium type low flow property indicated for use in warm weather.

Techniques


Direct wax technique wax pattern is made within the tooth Indirect wax technique wax pattern is prepared within a die

Dental Waxes


Boxing wax


Soft pliable wax with a smooth and shiny appearance. Supplied in long narrow strips measuring 1 to 1 inches wide and 12 to 18 inches long. Used to form a wall or box around a preliminary impression when pouring it up.

Dental Waxes  contd




Utility wax


Supplied in different forms depending on its use. Its makeup is beeswax, petrolatum, and other soft waxes. Uses: 1. Extend the borders of an impression tray. 2. Cover brackets in orthodontic treatment.

Dental Waxes  contd




Sticky wax
  

Supplied in sticks or blocks. Main ingredients are beeswax and rosin. Very brittle wax, but when heated, it becomes very tacky. Useful when creating a wax pattern or joining acrylic resin together.

Dental Waxes  contd




nlay casting wax




Hard brittle wax made from paraffin wax, carnauba wax, resin, and beeswax. Used to create a pattern of the indirect restoration on a model. Classified according to how they flow: 1. Type A: Hard-inlay wax. 2. Type B: Medium-inlay wax. 3. Type C: Soft-inlay wax.

Dental Waxes  contd




Casting wax


 

Makeup is paraffin, ceresin, beeswax, and resins. Supplied in sheets of various thicknesses. Used for single-tooth indirect restorations, fixed bridges, and casting metal portions of a partial denture.

Dental Waxes  contd




Baseplate wax  Made from paraffin or ceresin with beeswax and carnauba wax.  Hard and brittle at room temperature.  Supplied in sheets.  Three types: 1. Type I, which is a softer wax used for denture construction. 2. Type II, a medium-hardness wax used in moderate climates. 3. Type III, a harder wax for use in tropical climates.

Dental Waxes  contd




Bite registration waxes


  

Soft and very similar to casting waxes. Softened under warm water. Patient is instructed to bite down, and the wax will form an imprint of the teeth.