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Stem Cell Therapy

Rishika

Porwal I.D.No. 0773

Basics Characteristics Of Stem Cells

Properties
Self renewal - the ability to go through numerous cycles of cell division while maintaining the undifferentiated state Potency the capacity to differentiate into specialized cell types.

Features of Stem Cell


Totipotent

stem cells -cells produced

by the first few divisions of the cell . So can form any cell of the embryo as well as the placenta.
Pluripotent these cells differentiate

into cells derived from the three germ cell layers. Eg: embryonic stem cell, embryonic germ cell and embryonic carcinoma cells.

Features of Stem Cell


Multipotent these cells can produce

cells of a closely related family of cells. Eg: haematopoeitic stem cells, neural and mesenchymal stem cells.
Unipotent these cells only produce

one cell type., but have the property of self renewal which distinguishes them from the non stem cells.

Two broad types seen:


A embryonic stem cells B adult stem cells

Embyronic stem cell


Derived from the inner cell mass Pluripotent Can develop into more than 200 different cells Differentiate into cells of the 3 germ cell layers Because of their capacity of unlimited expansion and pluripotency useful in regenerative medicine

Tissue or adult stem cells


THEY PRODUCE CELLS SPECIFIC TO THE TISSUE IN WHICH THEY ARE FOUND THEY ARE RELATIVELY UNSPECIALIZED HOWEVER THEY ARE PREDETERMINED
TO GIVE RISE TO SPECIFIC CELL TYPES WHEN THEY DIFFERENTIATE

EG: HAEMATOPOIETIC, BONE MARROW,


NEURAL

Isolation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

Derivation and Use of Embryonic Stem Cell Lines


Outer cells Outer cells (forms placenta) (forms placenta) Isolate inner cell mass Isolate inner cell mass (destroys embryo) (destroys embryo) Inner cells Inner cells (forms fetus) (forms fetus)

Culture cells Culture cells

Day 5-6 Day 5-6 Blastocyst Blastocyst

Special sauce Special sauce (largely unknown) (largely unknown) Liver Liver Heart Heart repaired repaired

Kidney Kidney

Heart muscle Heart muscle

Sources of human neural stem cells for research and cell therapy

Skin Stem Cells, Marrow Stromal Cells

Properties of Human Embryonic Stem Cells in Culture


 Pluripotent able to form any of

~200 different types of cells of the body


 Self

renewing in vitro can

propagate or proliferate indefinitely in the undifferentiated state

Express the enzyme telomerase (required to maintain the ends of chromosomes) and Oct4 (a master regulator of ESC pluripotency)  Maintain normal chromosome structure and complement even after long periods in culture (unlike many other tissue culture cell lines)

Why are they important?

In the 3-5 day-old embryo, a blastocyst, stem cells in developing tissues give rise to the multiple specialized cell types that make up the heart, lung, skin, & other tissues. In some adult tissues, such as BM, muscle, & brain, discrete populations of adult stem cells generate replacements for cells that are lost through normal wear and tear, injury, or disease.

Discovered true stem cells in fat that could create new tissues like bone and cartilage

Stem Cells from fat

Extracted can become bone in the lab

Fix fractures

Why Adipose as Stem Cell Source?

High healing cell count No culturing required 1000X stem cell concentration as bone marrow Family of healing cells - heterogeneous Rapid, Easy to access Over 1700 peer reviewed papers published

Bone Marrow Stem Cells

Theraputic implications of Stem cell therapy

Stem cell therapy for

Parkinsonism

Stem Cells for the Parkinson's Disease


PD (2%) >65 years of age. PD is caused by a progressive degeneration & loss of DA-producing neurons. It is thought that PD may be the 1st disease to be amenable to t/t using stem cell transplantation. Factors supporting it - knowledge of the specific cell type needed to relieve symptoms of the disease.

When transplanted into the brains of a rat model


of PD, these stem cell-derived DA neurons reinnervated the brains of the rat Parkinson model, released dopamine and improved motor function.

Regarding human stem cell therapy, scientists are developing a number of strategies for producing DA neurons from human stem cells in laboratory for transplantation disease. into humans with Parkinson's

Stem cell therapy for


Multiple scelorsis

Multiple sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis - acquired neurological disability. Most patients develop a multifocal relapsing-remitting form of disease, followed by secondary progression.

Inflammatory demyelination dominates during the relapsing-remitting stage & neuro-degeneration represents the principle substrate of progression.

Despite important advances in disease


modifying treatments, no t/t can repair fixed disability

Introducing Direct cell

stem

cells

may

therefore implanting

promote repair in 2 ways

replacement-

myelinating oligodendrocyte precursors &




Indirectly through promoting endogenous remyelination.

Finally, experimental trials are


planned that will test the clinical relevance of recently recognised immunomodulatory and protective effects of some transplanted cells- such as neural precursors and mesenchymal stem cells- that limit Inflammation and enable endogenous repair.

Bone Marrow Stem Cells for


Spinal cord Injuries

The potential benefit of stem cell therapy for


spinal cord injuries is remarkable in that it may one day reverse what is currently an irreversible condition.

Studies have found that in laboratory animal models, stem cell injections were able to positively affect motility but the results were most significant with the lowest elapsed time between the injury and the injections.

Great deal more work is needed,


particularly to find successful therapies for those patients who have 'older' spinal cord injuries.

It is hoped that this research offers some hope to those who are wheelchair bound from spinal cord injuries.

Bone Marrow Stem Cells and

Diabetes

When stem cells were injected into the


bloodstream of diabetic mice, the stem cells found their way to the damaged pancreas, prompting the growth of new cells.

In one study, the symptoms of diabetes were reversed within 2 weeks of mice receiving BM stem cell injections. Their high bld sugar levels were reduced to almost normal values & their insulin levels were raised.

Even more interesting was that the cell growth wasnt from the injected cells themselves. Rather, the injected stem cells triggered the production of cells in the recipients own pancreas. The results were particularly fascinating to researchers also because when stem cells were injected in healthy, non diabetic mice, there was no change.

Its almost as though the stem cells were intelligent, in that they sought out the damaged tissue and triggered the new cell growth. Another benefit of using BM stem cells - they can be harvested from patients own BM. This helps to avoid the problems associated with immunological rejection

Stem Cells therapy for Cancer

Bone marrow transplant is used for cancers such as leukemia, lymphoma & myeloma where it allows the marrow to receive fresh and healthy cells, which then multiply and give rise to the different types of blood that are necessary for life. This procedure is often a life saving one for those whose marrow has been destroyed by chemotherapy and radiation.

Disorders that may be treated with stem cell transplantation include: Immune deficiency. Children born with severe immune cell deficiencies

Inherited Severe Blood Cell Diseases. Marrow transplantation is now being used to treat diseases such as thalassemia or sickle cell disease Marrow Failure. Aplastic anemia,

Current

research the

is

focused

on

overcoming

immunological

challenges of cell rejection so that the success rate of a bone marrow transplant can be improved.

Stem Cells therapy for Retinal disease

Retinal diseases consequences range from mild effects on vision to complete & rapid onset of blindness.

Scientists ve recently been able to direct the growth of photoreceptor cells from stem cells and effectively introduced them into the retina. This progress is encouraging for those who suffer from degenerative retinal diseases because there is the possibility of restoring or saving vision.

Stem Cells and Gene therapy

Gene therapy involves inserting genes into a persons cells with the aim of providing treatment for a particular disease.

Because a virus places its own genetic material into the host as part of its own replication cycle, it is an effective way to deliver the normal gene into the cell, thereby replacing the abnormal one

Using Stem Cells for Gene Therapy Of the many reasons as to why stem cells hold great potential for successful use in gene therapies, the most important one is the ability to self-renew. It means that the need to provide repeated administrations of gene therapy can be reduced or possibly even eliminated.

Stem Cells therapy for Hair Loss

What the researchers did may sound unusual, but they took lab mice and removed bits of skin on their heads, creating a wound.

The creation of this wound essentially woke up the Wnt gene signaling the bodys stem cells to also wake up and start functioning. The stem cells moved to the center of the wound to begin healing it and producing hair follicles with new hair growth.

Stem Cells therapy for Burn Victims

Burn victims tend to endure an enormous amount of pain & frustration from the challenges of healing. Instead of donor tissues being donated, stem cells could be used to produce new and healthy tissues. In burn victims, a very small piece of the skin can be progressively grown, allowing doctors to cover a burn that is often much larger than the original size of the skin piece.

Some other disease can be cured by stem cell therapy


Brittle bone disease Joint injuries Heart disease

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