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Assistant Professor Dept. Pharmacology & Toxicology Veterinary College,KVAFSU,Bidar-585 401


Basic Terminology
Alternative medicine refers to treatments or therapies that are outside accepted conventional medicine Complementary medicine refers to the use of alternative therapies with or in addition to conventional treatment

Types of Alternative and Complementary Medicine Veterinary acupuncture and acutherapy Veterinary chiropractic
 Examination, diagnosis, and treatment of animals through manipulation and adjustments

Veterinary physical therapy

 Use of noninvasive techniques for rehabilitation

Veterinary homeopathy
 Treatment by administration of substances that are capable of producing clinical signs in healthy animals

Types of Alternative and Complementary Medicine Veterinary botanical medicine

 Uses plants and plant derivatives as therapeutic agents

Nutraceutical medicine
 Uses micronutrients, macronutrients, and other nutritional supplements as therapeutic agents

Holistic veterinary medicine

 Comprehensive approach to health care both alternative and conventional diagnostic techniques and therapeutic approaches

Herbal Supplements
Herbal supplements are one of the fastest growing segments of the dietary supplement market
 One reason may be the desire for a more holistic approach to health care  people believe conventional treatments have real or perceived limitations  natural products do not have side effects  Herbs have been used for a long time  Advertising methods

Plants  Utilized by man to meet his daily requirements plus health care.

Plants(parts) , plant extracts or plant-derived pure chemicals Active principles: for medicinal propertiesVegetable bases, Alkaloids, Glucosides, Saponins, Proteins,Resins, Flavonoids, Tannins etc.

Different plant parts as drugs


Bark Root/Rhizome Bulb Leaf Flower and Flowering bud Fruit Seeds Whole plant/ Aerial Part Drugs


First generation phytomedicines simple botanicals employed in crude form based on empirical evidence of their clinical application by traditional societies from different parts of the world. Second-generation pure molecules,more pharmacologically active than their synthetic counterparts. Eg: quinine from Cinchona, reserpine from Rauwolfia, taxol from Taxus species. Third Generation

clinical evaluation of the treatment modalities and therapy as administered by traditional doctors or as used by the community as folk medicine. This is then followed by acute and chronic toxicity studies in animals.


Not commonly used in eye and ear infections as well as in endo-and ectoparasitoses Often used in diseases of the liver, joints, kidneys, heart and skin. More frequently applied in chronic diseases as well as secondary medication, whereas the time of treatment usually exceeds one month. .

Advantages and Disadvantages

Advantages  cheaper, less side effects  acceptance  minimal drug residue drug resistance problems  suitable for skin diseases, worms, wounds, reproductive disorders, nutritional deficiencies, and mild diarrhoea Disadvantages  Acceptance  lack of wide information.  less suitable to control epidemic and endemic infectious diseases, acute life-threatening bacterial infections.  May not be as fast-working,potent as allopathic in some cases.


Acacia catechu Catechu (Kachu,kadira)



the extract-catechu passive diarrhoea either alone, or in combination with cinnamon Astringent Antimicrobial

Acacia senegal
Gum Acacia, Gum Arabic Tree, or Gum Senegal Tree. Acacia, Hirijali

The gum-for soothing m.m of the intestine, inflamed skin Burn,epistaxis Antinflammatory

Aegle marmelos
Bengal quince, stone apple (Bela, bilva)

The fruit Antidiarrhoeal Antibacterial Antimycotic Maggot wound

Allium sativum (Garlic, bellulli)


Bacteriostatic Antibacterial Antiviral antifungal activity. Antihyperlipedemic Digestive

Aloe vera, Aloe barbadensis true aloe or medicinal aloe, (lole rasa)

The extracts soothing, moisturizing healing Purgative Sunheat burns Radiation Dermatitis

Alpinia galanga
(galangal, greater galangal (Thai galangal) blue ginger or Thai ginger. Kulinjana, Gandhamula)


The rhizome weak antimalarial activity in mice Carminative Bronchial stimulant Antirheumatic

Andrographis paniculata (green chiretta , Kirayat, Kiratha kaddi,Nelamevu,kala megha)

o o o o

The plant extract Bronchitis Diarrhoea Dermatitis Hepatoprotective

Anethum sowa


Carminative Diuretic

Annona squamosa, Annona reticulata.

(Sugar apple, Custard apple, seethaphala)


ruits Insecticidal Spasmogenic Oxytocic Antiseptic Antinematodal

Antidesama menasu
(Kadivala soppu,Kurala soppu)


fruits, leaves Antiinflammatory Diuretic Scabies

Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari, Shatamull, hatamuli, jattige beru, narayani)


Roots. Leaves Adaptogen Galactogogue Antispasmodic Nervine tonic Antibacterial Threatened abortion

Azadirachta indica
(Neem, Bevu , Kahi Bevu)


Seeds- natural alternative to synthetic pesticides. Leaves, shoot, fruits Antiviral, Antifungal Larvicidal Anticancer Antiandrogenic

Berberis aristata
(Indian Barberry or Tree Turmeric Bagisutra,Kadumandara)


The root bark Dermatitis Dysentry Anticancer Conjunctivitis Diuretic Laxative Jaundice

Boerhaavia diffusa
(tar vine, punarnava, Hog weed Komme gida, Gana Jali, Thoppalu)


The leaves Antibacterial Expectorant Diuretic Styptic Anti convulsant Hepatoprotective

Capsicum frutescens
(Chilli pepper, Menasinakai)


Carminative Counter irritant Rubefacient

Cassia alata (Candle Bush, Empress Candle Plant, Ringworm Tree or

"candletree" Aanethajanku, aane chagthe)


The leaves, flowers Pruritus Antibacterial Antifungal; Dermatitis Warts Wound

Eclipta prostrata
False Daisy , yerba de tago, and bhringraj, Aja gara, gurugada soppu


Styptic postpartum uterine pain bronchitis Antiviral hepatoprotective

Centella asiatica
Brahmi (saraswathisoppu,timare)

Adaptogen Antirhuematic Antispasmodic Antiseptic-bact, viral Sedative Nervine tonic Memory enhancer

Cinnamomum camphora
Camphor tree (karpura)

Powders Rubefacient Expectorant Antiseptic

Cinnamomum zeylanicum
Cinnamon (dalchinni)


Carminative Styptic Antifungal

Citrullus colocynthis
colocynth, bitter apple, bitter cucumber, egusi (Doddahale)


Fruits, seeds Purgative Abnormal foetal presentation

Citrus aurantfolia
(Key lime , Nimbu, cherunarangi)

Antibacterial Expectorant Dermatitis

Clerodendrum serratum (glorybower, bagflower,Kari tekki, Gantu barangi)


Leaves, fruits Sedative Analgesic Antihistaminic

Coleus ambainicus
(Indian Borage, Sambrani ele, Doddapatre,


Leaevs Flavouring, Antibacterial Carminative Expectorant Itching, Dermatitis Antiasthma

Coriander sativum (coriander, Kottambari)

 Leaves, fruit, root

Antioxidants Carminative Antibacterial

Cucurbita pepo (Pumpkin,Kumbala, Boodukumbala)


Fruit, leaves Postpartum uterine bleeding Taenicide Fungicidal

Cuminum cyminum
(Cummin, Jeerige)


Seeds, leaves Antibacterial Carminative spasmolytic

Curcuma amada
((mango ginger , Karpura arishina, Mavu Shunti)


Rhizome Antipyretic Laxative Carminative Dermatitis Contusion Sprain

Curcuma longa
Turmeric Haridra, haldar or haldi (Arasina)


Antiinflammatory Antibacterial Antiviral Antiprotozoal Antioxidant Hepatoprotective Bioenhancer

Ficus hispida (fig tree, figs, Adavipatti)

Bark, seeds Epistaxis Expectorant Emetic Drying milk


Ficus racemosa
(Cluster Fig Tree or Goolar (Gular) Fig, Attimara, Kollakitu)


Anti-inflammatory Analgesic Antidiarrhoeal Threatened abortion Hemoptysis

Gardenia resinefera
(Kunte, Dikka mali)


Leaves, flowers Antiseptic Astringent Antirheumatic Hepatoprotective

Glycyrrhiza glabra
(Liquorice/licorice/ jeshtamadhu)

 Root, Barks, extracts


Antinflammatory Expectorant Antiarthritc Purgative Diuretic

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
Chinese hibiscus, China rose and shoe flower,


Oestrogenic Hemostatic Anodyne Expulsion of placenta Constipation Pruritus Spsmolytic

Leucas aspera (Thumbe)


Leaves-Scabies Antipyretic Insecticidal

Mentha arvensis
Field Mint (Pudina), Wild Mint or Corn Mint


Leaves, flowers Counterirritant Antipruritic Flavouring

Myristica fragrans Nutmeg (Pathre,jayikayi)


Carminative Flavoring

Ocimum sanctum
tulsi, tulas , or Holy Basil


Antibacterial Antiprotozoal Expectorant Carminative Immunostimulant Antiulcerogenic Insecticidal

Phyllanthus emblica
Indian gooseberry, or aamla,


Leaves Fruits Antiviral Expectorant Carminative Hepatoprotective

Picrorrhiza kurroa (Black hellebore, black kutki, kali, kali kutki,

kali-kutki, karru, katki, kaur, kuru, kuruwa, kutaki, kutki, Katuka, katukarohini,)


Roots Stomachic Cholagogue Febrifuge Tonic Hepatoprotective

Pimpinella anisum
(aniseed ,Kadu oma, kadu sompu)


Seeds Colic Carminative

Piper cubeba
tailed pepper,


Leaves Urinary antiseptic Flavouring Cough

Piper longum
Pippali, Indian long pepper ,Hippali,thippali

Carminative Sedative Purgative Cough Bioenhancer

Piper nigrum (Pepper, Kalumenasu, karimenasu)


Carminative Antiseptic Rubefacient Sialogogue Abortive

Plantago ovata (Isapgol, isagolu)


psyllium seed husks Bulk Laxative

Pongamia pinnata
(Indian Beech, Pongam, Karanj Honge mara)


Dermatitis Mange Antibacterial Laxative

Prunus serotina
(black cherry,Wild cheery bark ,cheery hannu)


Flower, leaves Fruits Expectorant Astringent

Putranjiva roxburghhi (Amani, Kalada mani, Putranjeeva)


Diuretic Laxative Refrigerant

Saraca asoka


Astringent Tocolytic Scabies

Sida cordifolia
bala, country mallow, heart-leaf sida or flannel weed


Leaves Antiinflammatory Demulcents Tenesmus Colic

Syzygium aromaticum ( clove, lavanga)


Carminative Antiseptic Rubefacient Diuretic Febrifuge Gum and teeth strengthner

Syzygium cumini
Jambul , java plum, jamun, jamblang, jambolan, black plum, Damson plum


Astringent Antibacterial Dermatitis Gum and teeth strengthener

Tephrosia purpurea (Koggili, Vajradanti, Vajranili)

Antibacterial Diuretic Liverstimulant Antipyretic Dermatitis


Terminalia bellirica
Beleric, bastard myrobalan, ,Thouri, tare vriksha)


seeds Leaves Antimalarial Purgative Antimycotic Anodyne Laxative

Terminalia chebula (Black Myrobalan ,Alale kaayi, arale kaayi, hari taki)

Expectorant Anodyne Hepatoprotective Dermatitis Laxative Nervine tonic

Terminalis arjuna (Arjuna tree ,Bilimathi)


Astringent Febrifuge

Tinospora cordifolia
(Amruta Balli, Madhu parni)

Leaves, flowers, fruit Spasmolytic Antirheumatic Diuretic Antiinflammatory Urolitholytic

Urginea maritima
sea squill, red squill, sea onion, ein sit, and ada sogani. ,Adaviyerulli)


Expectorant Dermatitis

Woodfordia fruiticosa (Dhataki, arethamrapusti)


Antibacterial Antifungal Uterine sedative Hepatoprotective

Zingiber officinale (Ginger, Shunti)


Carminative Antiemetic

Zizyphus mauritiana (Elachi, badari, challe)


Purgative Styptic Colic Antipyretic Stomatitis Wound

volatile essential oils to achieve a physical or psychological response.  by diffusion or nebulisation, with massage or by topical application and rarely , orally.  ready absorption through the nasal micosa or skin.herbal therapy  also makes use of whole plant derivatives

concentrated and powerful medicines, which must be used with care and understanding.  As some may cause abortion in pregnant animals and use in food-producing animals can result in tainted food products from those animals.

Cedar Cedrus atlantica Expectorant, antiseptic, antifungal,insect repellant

Cinnamon Cinnamomum zeylanicum Dermatophytes, dental antiseptic, antimicrobial

Eucalyptus Eucalyptus globulus Antiseptic, decongestant, expectorant(upper respiratory tract infections), urinary antiseptic

Thyme Thymus vulgaris Antimicrobial, fungicidal, pneumonia, gastroenteritis

Turmeric  Curcuma longa  Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant,Chronic ulcers, scabies,

Peppermint  Mentha piperita  Carminative, antispasmodic, bronchitis, antitussive, mild antibacterial

Evening primrose Oenothera biennis Astringent, sedative, spasmodic, atopic eczema.

 No detailed documented study in livestock

medicine No recorded fixed dose schedule Ethnoveterinary practices..? Extensive research exclusive to Animal health Regionwise classification and categorisation of medicinal plants with proven therapeutic utility in animals for life threatening conditions