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Research Methodology


Dr. Azadeh Asgari

Typical Stages in Research

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Selecting a problem Reviewing the literature on the problem Designing the research Collecting the data Analyzing the data Interpreting findings and stating conclusions Reporting results

Research Design

The complete plan of attack on the central research problem. Provides the overall structure for the procedures that the researcher follows, the data that the researcher collects, and the data analyses that the researcher conducts, thus involves planning. Plan with the central goal of solving the research problem in mind.

Types of Research Design

Basic research Aimed at obtaining empirical data used to formulate and expand theories, and the frontiers of knowledge without regard to practical application Not designed towards the solution of practical problems Applied research Aims to solve an immediate practical problem at appropriate level of complexity (t-l situation)

Applied Research
1) Quantitative
= involves objective measurements and statistical data analysis to understand and explain A phenomenon.

2) Qualitative = focuses on understanding a

social phenomenon from the perspective of those involved as participants in the research.

Applied Research

Aims at utilizing the previously attained principles to solve existing problems. May result in a new technology or new strategy, which is better, more effective or more cost effective.
E.G.: research to improve learning research to reduce accidents on the highway research to increase the production of food

Applied Research
Clasified according to research methodology used : 1. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
Descriptive Research Correlational Research Ex Post Facto Research Exsperimental Research (Pre, True & Quasi)

Case Studies Ethnographic Research Historical Research

Examples of Descriptive Research

Principals perceptions graduates from UPM. Problems TOEFL. encountered





Current status of the teaching of science and mathematics in English: teachers perceptions

Descriptive Research
To obtain information on current status of phenomenon. To provide information on the situation during the time of study. Usually performed when a problem developed in current practices and the researcher wants to find out the status quo.

Descriptive Research

Involves numerous variables to be studied

Does not involve the implementation and control of treatments like in an experimental research

Descriptive Research
Are of different types based on how data are collected:
1) Through self

report 2) Through observations

Descriptive Research (Self Report)

Information are individuals using:



I. Questionnaires, II. Interviews, III. Standard scales.

Descriptive Research

Through observations
Data are collected observations through direct

Note: sometimes both methods are used in the same research

Descriptive Research (Self Report)


Purpose of Survey

To collect detail information in order to explain current phenomena .

To identify problems or to justify current situation and practices.

To compare situations or to evaluate current situations.

Data Collection For Survey

Survey Of Documents Mail Survey Survey Through Interviews

Groups 2. Individuals

Follow-Up Studies

Done after a program has been conducted May not necessarily be an evaluation of the program

Developmental Studies

Concerned primarily with variables that differentiate children at different levels of age, growth, or maturation Investigate progression along a number of dimensions, e.g. Physical, emotional, or social development Cross-sectional or longitudinal

Trend Studies
Conducted based on accumulated longitudinal data observe what happened previously, then observe the current pattern, and based on available data, predict what would happen in the future