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Memory Level Thoughtless level Understanding Level Thoughtful level Reflective Level Most Thoughtful level

Assumptions of Memory Level Teaching


y Meaningful Learning Materials are easy to memorize.

More meaningful the learnt material, longer it tends to be retained. y The capacity to memorize has no positive relationship with capacity of intelligent behaviour. y The memory level teaching contribute little to intelligent behaviour and problem solving. y Memorized facts contribute little to effective student growth.

Memory Level It refers to the process which concerns rotememorization of material taught. It is based on Stimulus-Response theory of learning. It is not always possible to avoid it . In most school situations, it is not always possible to teach at higher levels because of syllabus and lack of resources

Suggestions for teacher to teach material at memory level


y Repetition of Subject-matter y Recall of content y Teaching content should be meaningful y All parts of content should be integrated y Continuous reinforcement should be given y Retention can be increased by drill

Characteristics of Memory Level


1. Objective knowledge objective is achieved at memory level. Teaching at this level aims at learning that may enable students to y Train the mental disciplines y To acquire factual information y To retain the learnt material for longer time

2. Subject Matter This level is subject centred. The subject matter utilized for achieving knowledge is properly organised. 3. Role of Teacher Plays a very dominant role. He is the sole authority that directs, instructs, controls and evaluates 4. Role of Learner Learner is very passive. He is mere recipient of information and facts.

5. Nature of Motivation The kind of motivation is purely extrinsic or external. Motivation is provided by the teacher in form of reinforcement. 6. Methods used Methods are teacher-centred and subject centred e.g lecture method, textbook method, narration method and deductive method.

7. Classroom environment

Classroom environment is teacher dominated, dull and uninteresting. 8. Evaluation System Usually oral tests are used to test the retension of the students.

Model of Memory Level Teaching


1.

Focus To train the mental Disciplines To Acquire factual information To retain the learnt material for longer time To recall and recognize the material learnt

2. Syntax Preparation Presentation Comparison and Abstraction Generalisation Application

3. Social System

Authoritarian Behaviour. The teacher is more active and his job is to present material sytematically in the class. 4. Support system Audio/Visual aids, Structured and meaningful content, Interesting content. 5. Evaluation Oral and objective type tests are usually used to measure the retained material

Understanding Level
y It is the process that acquaint the students with the

relationships between the generalizations and the particulars i.e. between the principles and the facts and shows where the principles can be applied. Understanding is of three types:
y Full Understanding (Factual Information) y True Understanding (Meaning of Concept) y Functional Understanding (Knowing the application of

principal of concept)

Characteristics of Understanding Level


1.
y y y y

Objective Main objectives are:


To understand the meaning of acquired facts To identify similarities and dissimilarities To seek generalization out of facts To apply generalized facts in practical life

2.

Subject Matter Subject matter for this level is very structured.

3. Role of Teacher

Like memory level the teacher

plays a dominant role but he has the additional responsibility of making the subject-matter

meaningful and understandable for the learners.

4.

Role of Learner

In the level the learners do no

remain passive. They actually participate in teachinglearning process, however the overall control is in the hands of the teacher

5. Nature of Motivation- In this level also the motivation is extrinsic but it may be intrinsic in some situations because of the involvement of the students in the teaching learning process.

6. Methods Used

Those methods that can help

students in proper understanding of the acquired facts are used e.g. inductive-deductive, lecture-cumdemonstration, method. Naration-cum-question/answer

7. Classroom Environment - It does not remain dull and uninteresting. It becomes purposeful as the students like to take interest in teaching-learning process.

8. Evaluation System

Different type of Evaluation

devices are used e.g. Oral, Written and practical.

Model of Understanding Level of Teaching


1. Focus The main focus is on having Mastery on the concept. It provides substantial knowledge and encourage better interest and responses from the students.

2.
y

Syntax
Exploration To explore the initial knowledge of the students. Helps the teacher to arrange the content psychologically Presentation Content is provided in small steps and rapport with the students is maintained. The teacher observes / diagnoses weaknesses of the students Assimilation The purpose is to revise the subject matter with the help of assignment, supervised study etc. Organisation To determine whether the student can reproduce the essentials of the content without any help Recitation - Oral or Written

y y y

3.

Social

System

Teacher

should

not

be

authoritarian. He should be flexible and dynamic. He should motivate the students to participate in the teaching- learning process.

4.

Support system

Various teaching aids, Audio-

visual Material can be used to make presentation interesting. Programmed instruction material could be used for individualized instruction to the students

5.

Evaluation

Essay and objective type tests could

be used for evaluate the student understanding of the concepts.

Reflection
Reflection or critical reflection , refers to an activity or process in which an experience is recalled, considered, and evaluated, usually in relation to a broader purpose. It is a response to past experience and involves conscious recall and examination of the experience as a basis for evaluation and decision-making and as a source for planning and action. Bartlett (1990) points out that becoming a reflective teacher involves moving beyond a primary concern with instructional techniques and how to questions and asking what and why questions that regard instructions and managerial techniques not as ends in themselves, but as part of broader educational purposes.

Reflective Level of Teaching


It is the most thoughtful level of teaching. It has been defined as careful, critical examination of an idea or an article of knowledge in the light of the evidence which supports it and the further conclusions which it points. It is based on cognitive field theory of learning in which new insights are developed. At this level of teaching the students are exposed not to facts or concepts but to a problem which is unclear and puzzling to them.

Characteristics of Reflective Level


1.
y y y

Objectives The main objective of this level are :


To develop problem solving attitude among students To develop critical and creative thinking among students To develop original and independent thinking among students.

2.

Subject Matter The subject-matter at this level is quite unstructured and is in the form of problem raising and problem solving.

3.

Role of the Teacher

Teacher doesn t play

dominant role at this level. He has to play quite responsible, democratic and cooperative role. He acts as a guide.

4.

Role of Learner

Learner occupy primary place at

this level of teaching. Learner has to make use of his cognitive abilities and has to remain active in the class

5.

Nature of Motivation motivation is of intrinsic type as learners are fully active at this level.

6.

Method used

Methods used are more student-

centred e.g. discovery method, project method, assignment method and problem-solving method.

7.

Classroom environment

It will be free, open,

independent, friendly and democratic.

8.

Evaluation system

It should test the abilities of

the students in terms of originality, open-mindedness and creativity.

Model of Reflective Level


1.
y y y

Focus
To develop the ability of problem solving To develop the creative and critical thinking To enable the students for original and independent thinking

2. Syntax
y Teacher creates a problematic situation before the pupils y Pupils formulate hypotheses for testing. More than one

hypotheses may be formulated for solution of the problem. y Pupils collect data to verify the hypotheses. On the basis of these collected data, it is decided whether these hypotheses may help in the solution of the problem or not. y Hypotheses are tested. Results are derived on the basis of these tests which are original ideas of the pupils

3.

Social System Teacher should be creative, tactful and insightful and should be able to create problematic situations. The role of teacher is to assist the learner. The learner should be very active at this level. The environment should be democratic

4.

Support System The learner should be encouraged to formulate as many hypotheses as possible. The students should be further oriented to collect the evidences for the verification of the hypotheses.

5.

Evaluation System Written tests should be used to measure higher level of cognition. The essay type test is the best device to evaluate the reflective level. Other techniques should be used to measure the involvement in problem, attitude, adjustment and critical thinking of the learner.

Suggestions for Reflective Level Teaching


y The learner should be sensitive to the problem. The

teacher should create need for solving the problem. y The teacher may develop problematic situations which may develop the original and creative thinking in the learners. y The students should feel the problem in order to formulate hypotheses. y Learner should be given freedom to think independently.