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SKYSCRAPERS

A presentation on skyscrapers.

Ar. Himmat Bhatia 2/26/2012

CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION FIRST USE OF THE TERM SKYSCRAPERS HISTORY SKYSCRAPERS AROUND THE WORLD ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES WORLD TALLEST SKYSCRAPER- BURJ KHALIFA

Introduction
A skyscraper is a tall, continuously habitable building of many stories. It is designed for both residential and commercial purpose. There is no official definition or height above which a building may be classified as a skyscraper. Any building exceeding 1000 ft (300 m) in height essentially a skyscraper. .

First Use of the Term Skyscraper


The term "skyscraper" was first used during the 1880s, shortly after the first 10 to 20 story buildings were built in the United States. skyscrapers came to dominate American skylines at the turn of the century. The world's tallest building when it opened in 1913, architect Cass Gilbert's 793foot Woolworth Building was considered a leading example of tall building design.

History
Modern skyscrapers are built with materials such as steel, glass, reinforced concrete and granite etc. Until the 19th century, buildings of over six stories were rare.

World s First skyscraper

History
First skyscraper in the world due to the building's unique architecture and unique weight bearing frame, the Home Insurance Building was built in 1885 in Chicago, Illinois and demolished in 1931 to make way for the Field Building. It was the first building to use structural steel in its frame, but the majority of its structure was composed of cast and wrought iron. It had 10 stories and rose to a height of 138 feet (42 m) high.

Home insurance building, Chicago 1885

Skyscrapers around the World

The Tallest Building in the World


Current Name: Burj Khalifa

Location: Dubai

Year: opened on January 4, 2010

Height: 828 meters (=361 Yao Ming!!!)

Floors: 162

Burj Khalifa in the United Arab Emirates

The Tallest Building in the U.S.


Historically Name: Sears Tower

Current Name: Willis Tower

Location: Chicago, Illinois, USA

Year: 1974

Height: 442 meters

Floors: 110

Sears Tower (Willis Tower) in Chicago, USA.

The tallest twin buildings


Location: Kuala Lumpur

Year: 1998

Petronas Tower 1 Height: 452 meters Petronas Tower 1 Stories: 88

Petronas Tower 2 Height: 452 meters Petronas Tower 2 Stories: 88

Interesting Point: Each floor of the 88story towers is shaped like an 8-pointed star

The Petronas Towers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Skyscrapers in HK

International Commerce Centre(ICC) (484m, 118 floors)

International Finance Centre Tower II (2IFC) (415m, 88 floors).

Towers

CN Tower in Toronto, Canada the world's tallest tower (553m)

Oriental Pearl TV Tower in Shanghai, China

Location: Taipei, Taiwan

Year: 2004

Height: 509 meters

Floors: 101 Interesting points: Both the building's interior and exterior incorporate the Chinese pagoda form and the shape of bamboo flowers.

Taipei 101 Tower in Taipei, Taiwan.

The tallest freestanding structure

CN Tower, Toronto, Canada 553.53 meters to the top of the antenna

Tallest structure under construction

Madinat Al-Hareer (City of Silk), Kuwait City, Kuwait 1001 meters to the top Will cost almost $90 billion Should be complete by 2030

Tallest unfinished building


Ryugyong Hotel, Pyongyang, North Korea 330 m (as high as the Eiffel Tower) Tallest hotel in the world Construction started in 1987 and stopped in 1992 due to lack of funding

Tallest building destroyed

World Trade Center 1 Completed in 1973, destroyed in 2001 526 meters Tallest building in New York for 28 years

Extract from http://www.skyscraper.org/TALLEST_TOWERS/tallest.htm

Advantages
People choose to build them for several reasons. They are built so that many living spaces or office spaces can exist on a smaller piece of land. Since land is expensive, it may be cheaper to build up rather than outward on the ground. They may also be built for aesthetic reasons: to beautify an area, to attract tourists, to improve the appearance of big cities, or to compete with other skyscraper designs

Disadvantages
Problems with fire safety and quick evacuation Possible terrorist targets Have to withstand high winds Flight safety regulations Extremely expensive to build

Burj Khalifa
1. 2. 3. At this moment the building in Dubai has 14 records!! Some of them are: Tallest structure ever built: 828 m Building with most floors: 160(the previous just 108) World s highest swimming pool (76th floor)

Background Information
Khalifa Tower", known as Burj Dubai prior to its inauguration, is a skyscraper in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. It is the tallest man-made building ever built, at 828 m. Construction began on 21 September 2004, the exterior of the building was finished on 1 October 2009. The building finished and opened on the 4th of January 2010. It took overall 6 years to be finished!!

Architecture and Engineering


It was performed by Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill of Chicago, with Adrian Smith as chief architect, and Bill Baker as chief structural engineer.

Construction Labour

About 7,500 skilled workers were used for the construction of the building.

The Design-History
The design of Burj Khalifa is derived from patterning systems embodied in Islamic architecture. According to the structural engineer, Bill Baker, the building's design contains cultural and historical elements particular to the region. The Y-shaped plan is ideal for residential and hotel usage, with the wings allowing maximum outward views and inward natural light.

Features
More than 4000 tones of steel were used and more than 1,000 pieces of art decorate the interiors of Burj Khalifa featuring 196 bronze and brass alloy symbols representing the 196 countries of the world. The outside part is made of glass! There are two swimming pools on the 43rd and 76th floors.

The building is expected to hold up to 35,000 people!! This shows the size and strength of the building. There are 160 floors, 57 elevators and 8 escalators!!

Floors 160 and above 156159 155 139154 136138 125135 124 123 122 111121 109110 77108 76 7375

4472 Use Mechanical Communication and broadcast Mechanical Corporate suites Mechanical Corporate suites At the Top observatory Sky lobby Atmosphere restaurant Corporate suites Mechanical Residential Sky lobby Mechanical 43 4042 3839 1937 1718 916 18 Ground Concourse B1B2

Residential Sky lobby Mechanical Armani Hotel suites Armani Residences Mechanical Armani Residences Armani Hotel Armani Hotel Armani Hotel Parking, mechanical

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