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Management 340

Exam # 2
Review
Robbins 10th Ed.
Ch 6-10
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory

Hygiene Factors Motivational Factors


• Quality of supervision • Career Advancement
• Rate of pay • Personal growth
• Company policies
• Working conditions • Recognition
• Relations with others • Responsibility
• Job security • Achievement

High Job Dissatisfaction 0 Job Satisfaction High


Little Ambition

Theory X Dislike Work


Workers
Avoid Responsibility

Self-Directed

Theory Y
Enjoy Work
Workers
Accept Responsibility
Different Views of Satisfaction
Traditional View
Theory X Theory Y
Dissatisfaction Satisfaction

Herzberg’s View
Motivators
Satisfaction No Satisfaction

Hygiene Factors
No Dissatisfaction Dissatisfaction
Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Related to
the Job

Self-
Actualization
Satisfaction-
Esteem
Progression
Belongingness, Social,
and Love

Safety and Security

Physiological
Alderfer’s ERG Theory

Satisfaction- Growth: Frustration-


Progression Needs sat- Regression
isfied by creative or
productive contributions

Relatedness: Needs satisfied by


meaningful social and
interpersonal relationships

Existence: Need satisfied by such factors


as food, pay, and working conditions.
Manifest Needs Theory

Need
Cue Arousal Behavior Outcomes

Implications:
More than one need can be active at one time
Needs that emerge depend on the situation
Managers can arouse worker needs and satisfy them
Matching Achievers and Jobs

EXHIBIT 6-5
Flow and Intrinsic Motivation
Theory
Ken Thomas’s Model of Intrinsic
Motivation
• Employees are intrinsically motivated when rewards an
employee gets from work result from:
– Choice– the ability to freely self-select and perform task
activities.
– Competence– the sense of accomplishment from skillfully
performing chosen tasks or activities.
– Meaningfulness– pursuing a task that matters in the larger
scheme of things.
– Progress– the feeling of significant advancement in
achieving the task’s purpose.
Cognitive Evaluation Theory
Expectancy Theory
E P Expectancy P O Expectancy
Perceived probability of successful Perceived probability of receiving an Second-level
performance, given effort outcome, given performance
outcomes
First-level
outcomes
Second-level
outcomes

Second-level
First-level
Effort Performance outcomes
outcomes
Second-level
outcomes

Second-level
First-level
outcomes
outcomes
Second-level
outcomes
Reinforcement Theory

Rewards

Consequences No Rewards Behavior

Punishment

Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 6 13


Goal-Setting Theory

• Specificity • Commitment
• Challenge • Self-efficacy
• Feedback • Task: simple, independent
• Participation • Culture

Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 6 14


The Equity Theory of Motivation
A person (P) Compares his A reference
with certain or her input- person’s (RP) And
inputs (I) and output ratio to inputs (I) and perceives
receiving reference outcomes (O)
certain person
outcomes (O)

OP ORP Equity
=
IP IRP
or
Under-
OP ORP
< payment
IP IRP
inequity
or
OP ORP Over-
> payment
IP IRP
inequity
Equity Theory (cont’d)

Choices for dealing with inequity:


2. Change inputs (slack off)
3. Change outcomes (increase output)
4. Distort/change perceptions of self
5. Distort/change perceptions of others
6. Choose a different referent person
7. Leave the field (quit the job)
Equity Theory (cont’d)
Propositions relating to inequitable pay:
• Overrewarded salaried employees produce
more than equitably rewarded employees.
• Overrewarded piece-rate employees produce
less, but do higher quality piece work.
• Underrewarded salaried employees produce
lower quality or quantity work.
• Underrewarded piece-rate employees
produce larger quantities of lower-quality
work than equitably rewarded employees
Equity Theory (cont’d)

Affects Satisfaction

Affects Fairness,
Commitment, Intent to Quit
Performance Dimensions
Ability

P= f A x M x O

Performance

Motivation Opportunity
What is MBO?

Key Elements
2. Goal specificity
3. Participative decision making
4. An explicit time period
5. Performance feedback
Why MBO’s Fail

• Unrealistic expectations about MBO


results
• Lack of commitment by top
management
• Failure to allocate reward properly
• Cultural incompatibilities
MBO: Cascading of Objectives
Organizational
Objectives The XYZ Company

Divisional
Consumer Products Industrial Products
Objectives

Departmental Customer
Production Sales Marketing ResearchDevelopment
Objectives Service

Individual
Objectives
Employee Recognition Programs
• Types of programs
– Personal attention
– Expressing interest
– Approval
– Appreciation for a job well done
• Benefits of programs
– Fulfills employees’ desire for recognition.
– Encourages repetition of desired behaviors.
– Enhances group/team cohesiveness and motivation.
– Encourages employee suggestions for improving processes and
cutting costs.
What is Employee Involvement?
Examples of Employee
Involvement Programs
Examples of Employee
Involvement Programs (cont’d)
Examples of Employee
Involvement Programs (cont’d)
Piece Rate Profit Sharing

Variable
Pay Plans

Gainsharing Bonus Plans


P-L
Skill-Based Pay Plans
• Promotes Flexibility
Advantages • Facilitates Communication
• Satisfies Ambitious Workers

• “Topping Out”
Disadvantages • Obsolescence of Skills
• Performance versus Skills

P-L
Flexible Benefits
Core-plus Plans:
a core of essential
benefits and a menu-like
selection of other benefit
options.

Modular Plans: Flexible Spending Plans:


predesigned benefits allow employees to use
packages for specific their tax-free benefit
groups of employees. dollars to purchase
benefits and pay service
premiums.
Porter-Lawler Integrated Model

• The model explains individual work


behavior and attitudes.
• It integrates needs, expectancy, equity,
& goal setting theories.
• Take a look
Defining and
Classifying Groups

Command Groups
Formal
Task Groups

Interest Groups
Informal
Friendship Groups
Why People Join Groups
• Security
• Status
• Self-esteem
• Affiliation
• Power
• Goal Achievement

EXHIBIT 8-1
Stages of Group Development
Prestage I Stage I Stage II
Forming Storming

Stage III Stage IV Stage V


Norming Performing Adjourning
Punctuated-Equilibrium Model
(High) Performance

Phase 2
First
Completion
Meeting
Transition
Phase 1

(Low) Time
A (A+B)/2 B
Sociometry and Analyzing Group
Interaction
• Social networks • Cliques

• Clusters • Stars

• Isolates • Liaisons

• Coalitions • Bridges

• Emergent clusters • Prescribed clusters


External Conditions Imposed on
the Group

• Overall • Employee
strategy selection
• Authority • Evaluation-
structures rewards
• Formal • Culture
Group Member Resources
• Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities
– Interpersonal skills
• Conflict management and resolution
• Collaborative problem solving
• Communication
– Personality Characteristics
• Sociability
• Initiative
• Openness
• Flexibility
Group Structure - Roles (cont’d)
Group Structure - Roles (cont’d)
Group Structure - Status

Group Norms

Group Member
Status Equity
Status

Culture
Group Structure - Norms

Classes of Norms:
• Performance norms
• Appearance norms
• Social arrangement norms
• Allocation of resources
norms
Typology of Deviant Workplace
Behavior

EXHIBIT 8-6
Group Structure - Size
Performance

g)
ed

if n
ct

a
lo
pe

to
Ex

u e
d
al( Other conclusions:
t u
Ac • Odd number groups do
better than even.
Group Size • Groups of 7 or 9 perform
better overall than larger
or smaller groups.
Group Structure - Composition
Group Structure - Cohesiveness

Increasing group cohesiveness:


2. Make the group smaller.
3. Encourage agreement with group goals.
4. Increase time members spend together.
5. Increase group status and admission difficultly.
6. Stimulate competition with other groups.
7. Give rewards to the group, not individuals.
8. Physically isolate the group.
Relationship Between Group Cohesiveness,
Performance Norms, and Productivity

EXHIBIT 8-7
Effects of Group Processes
Process Gains

Synergy

Potential Actual
Group Group
Effectiveness Effectiveness

Process Losses

Social Loafing
Group Decision Making

Advantages Disadvantages

 More Diversity of Views  Dominant Individuals

 Increased information  Unclear Responsibility

 Higher-quality decisions  Time and money costs


 Improved Commitment  Conformity pressures
Group Tasks
• Decision-making
– Large groups facilitate the pooling of information
about complex tasks.
– Smaller groups are better suited to coordinating and
facilitating the implementation of complex tasks.
– Simple, routine standardized tasks reduce the
requirement that group processes be effective in
order for the group to perform well.
Group Decision Making

• Strengths • Weaknesses
– More complete – More time
information consuming
– Increased diversity – Increased pressure
of views to conform
– Higher quality of – Domination by one
decisions or a few members
– Increased – Ambiguous
acceptance of responsibility
solutions
Group Decision Making (cont’d)
Group Decision-Making
Techniques
Comparing Work Groups and Work Teams
Work Groups Work Teams

Share information Goal Collective performance

Neutral (may be negative) Synergy Positive

Individual Accountability Individual and mutual

Random and varied Skills Complementary


Types of Teams

Problem-Solving Self-managed

Cross-functional
Types of Teams (cont’d)

Team Characteristics
2. The absence of paraverbal and nonverbal cues
3. A limited social context
4. The ability to overcome time and space constraints
Beware: Teams Aren’t Always the
Answer

• Three tests to see if a team fits the


situation:
– Is the work complex and is there a need for
different perspectives?
– Does the work create a common purpose or
set of goals for the group that is larger than
the aggregate of the goals for individuals?
– Are members of the group involved in
interdependent tasks?
A Team-Effectiveness Model

EXHIBIT 9-3
Key Roles
of Teams

EXHIBIT 9-4
Contemporary Issues in
Managing Teams
• Team Effectiveness and Quality Management
Requires That Teams:
1. Are small enough to be efficient and effective.
2. Are properly trained in required skills.
3. Allocated enough time to work on problems.
4. Are given authority to resolve problems and take
corrective action.
5. Have a designated “champion” to call on when
needed.
Team and Workforce Diversity:
Advantages and Disadvantages of Diversity

EXHIBIT 9-5
Reinvigorating Mature Teams
• Problems of Mature Teams
– Becoming stagnant and complacent as cohesiveness increases.
– Developing groupthink.
– Confronting more difficult issues.
• Reinvigorating Teams
– Prepare members to deal with problems of maturity.
– Offer refresher training.
– Offer advanced training.
– Encourage teams to treat their development as a constant
learning experience.
Functions of Communication
Control Motivation

Emotional
Information
Expression
Exhibit 10-3
The Communication Process
Model

Source

Message Encoding

Message Channel
Feedback

NOISE Message

Receiver Receiver
Action Decoding
Exhibit 10-3
Three Common Small-Group
Networks

Chain Wheel

All-Channel
Exhibit 10-4
Small Group Networks and Effectiveness
Criteria
Networks
Criteria Chain Wheel All-Channel

Speed Moderate Fast Fast

Accuracy High High Moderate

Emergence of Moderate High None


Leader

Member Moderate Low High


Satisfaction
Grapevine
• Grapevine Characteristics
– Not controlled by management.
– Perceived by most employees as being more
believable and reliable than formal communications.
– Largely used to serve the self-interests of those who
use it.
– Results from:
• Desire for information about important situations
• Ambiguous conditions
• Conditions that cause anxiety
Suggestions for Reducing the
Negative Consequences of Rumors

EXHIBIT 10-5
Intonations: It’s the Way You Say
It!

EXHIBIT 10-2
Interpersonal Communication
• Oral Communication
– Advantages: Speed and feedback.
– Disadvantage: Distortion of the message.
• Written Communication
– Advantages: Tangible and verifiable.
– Disadvantages: Time consuming and lacks feedback.
• Nonverbal Communication
– Advantages: Supports other communications and provides
observable expression of emotions and feelings.
– Disadvantage: Misperception of body language or gestures can
influence receiver’s interpretation of message.
Choice of Communication
Channel

Characteristics of Rich Channels


2. Handle multiple cues simultaneously.
3. Facilitate rapid feedback.
4. Are very personal in context.
Information Richness of
Communication Channels

Low channel richness High channel richness

Routine Nonroutine

EXHIBIT 10-7
Barriers to Effective
Communication
Barriers to Effective
Communication (cont’d)
emotions language
How a receiver feels at Words have different
the time a message is meanings to different
received will influence people.
how the message is
interpreted.
Communication Barriers
Between Men and Women
• Men talk to: • Women talk to:
– Emphasize status, – Establish connection and
power, and intimacy.
independence.
– Criticize men for not
– Complain that listening.
women talk on and
– Speak of problems to
on.
promote closeness.
– Offer solutions.
– Express regret and restore
– To boast about their balance to a conversation.
accomplishments.
Cross-Cultural Communication

• Cultural Barriers
– Barriers caused by semantics
– Barriers caused by word connotations
– Barriers caused by tone differences
– Barriers caused by differences among
perceptions
Communication Barriers and
Cultural Context
High-
vs.
Low-
Context
Cultures

EXHIBIT 10-11
A Cultural Guide
Cultural Context Communication Rules:
2. Assume differences until similarity is proven.
3. Emphasize description rather than
interpretation or evaluation.
4. Practice empathy.
5. Treat your interpretations as a working
hypothesis.