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Presented by Anum Humaira Rubbiya

Presented to

ma am amber

1 Introduction to Research
 1.1What is research?

 Research is the process of finding

solutions to a problem after a thorough study and analysis of the situational factors.

1.2.What is business research?


 Research provides the needed information

that guides managers to make informed decisions to successfully deal with problems.  The information provided could be the result of a careful analysis of data gathered firsthand or of data that are already available (in the company).

1.3.Types of Business research.


 1.Applied research  Is to solve a current problem faced by the manager in the work setting,demanding a timely solution.  2.Basic research (fundamental, pure)  Is to generate a body of knowledge by trying to understand how certain problems that occur in organizations can be solved.  The findings of such research contribute to the building of knowledge in the various functional areas of business.

1.4. Why
     

is it important for managers to know about research?

Solve problems Decision making tool Competition Risk Investment Hire researchers and consultants more effectively

2 Scientific Investigation
        

1 Observation 2 Identification of problem area 3 Theoretical framework 4 Hypotheses 5 Research design 6 Data collection 7 Data analysis 8 Data interpretation 9 Implementation

The seven-step process in the Hypothetico-Deductive method


 1 Observation  2 Problem identification preliminary information gathering  3 Theoretical framework theory formulation  4 Hypothesizing  5 Research design further scientific data collection  6 logical analysis  7 Deduction

The seven-step process







problem statement is a clear, precise, and succinct statement of the question or issue that is to be investigated with the goal of finding an answer or solution. Theoretical framework is the foundation on which the entire research project is based.It is logically developed,described,and elaborated network of associations among the variables relevant to the problem situation. A hypothesis is a tentative statement that proposes a possible explanation to some phenomenon or event. A useful hypothesis is a testable statement which may include a prediction. A hypotheses should not be confused with a theory.

 Data analysis: the data gathered are statistically analyzed to see if the hypotheses
that were generated have been supported.

Measurement is the process observing and recording the observations that are collected as part of a research effort.
the data analysis results. Or else we can say from general theory to specific case.

 Deduction is the process of arriving at conclusions by interpreting the meaning of




Problem Formulation
 "Well begun is half done" --Aristotle, quoting an old proverb  Where do research topics come from?  The idea for a research project?  one of the most common sources of research ideas is the experience of practical problems in the field?  The Literature Review

The Research Cycle

 The Research Cycle

http://questioning.org/rcycle.html

QUESTIONING PLANNING GATHERING SORTING & SIFTING SYNTHESIZING EVALUATING REPORTING*

 http://questioning.org/module/cycle.html  Research Project?  http://www.ri.net/schools/East_Greenwich/research.html

Information needs in business


 Almost every organization has to engage in research at some level to stay competitive.  Companies gather data both from within and outside the organization.  The methods used to gather,analyze,and synthesize information from the external and internal environments are becoming increasingly sophisticated to the immense scope of computer technology.

Computer Technology and Business

 ICT
 Information  Communication  Technology

The research process


          

1 Observation 2 Data gathering 3 Problem definition 4 Theoretical framework (variables identified) 5 Hypotheses 6 Research design 7 Data collection,analysis,interpretation 8 Deduction 9 Report writing 10 Report presentation 11 Managerial decision making

Research design
 Purpose of the study:

Exploratory study
Is undertaken when no information is available on how similar problems or research issues have been solved in the past

Descriptive study
Is to able to describe the characteristics of the variables of interest in a situation.

Hypotheses testing
Is undertaken to explain the variance in the dependent variable or to predict organizational outcomes.

Case studies Research design can be thought of as the structure of research -- it is the "glue" that holds all of the elements in a research project together

Measurement
 The rating scale
Have several response catagories Likert scale is designed o exermine how strongly subject agree or disagree with statements on a 5point scale

 Ranking scale
Are used to tap preferences between two or more objects or items

 Goodness of measure : reliability,validity

Data collection methods


 Data can be collected in a variety ways ,data sources can be primary or secondary.  Data collection methods such as:  interview(face-to-face,telephone,computerassisted interviews),  Questionaires  Observation  Motivational techniques

Sampling
 A sample is a subset of the population.  Sample is the process of selecting a sufficient number of elements from the population.  Studying a sample rather the entire population is sometimes to lead to more reliable results, mostly because fatigue is reduced,resulting in fewer errors on collection data. (time, cost,human resources)  Surveys are useful and powerful in finding answers to research question but if data are not collected from the people or objects that can provide the correct answers to solve the problem, the survey will be in vain.

Data Analysis and Interpretation


 The data analysis involves three major steps, done in roughly this order:  Cleaning and organizing the data for analysis (Data Preparation)  Describing the data (Descriptive Statistics) http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/statdesc.php  Testing Hypotheses and Models (Inferential Statistics)

Descriptive Statistics
 Descriptive statistics
provide simple summaries about the sample and the measures. Central Tendency. The central tendency of a distribution is an estimate of the "center" of a distribution of values. There are three major types of estimates of central tendency:
Mean is the most common-used measure of data tendency.=average. Median is the middle value , when the data is arranged in numerical order. Mode is the value ( number) that appears the most. Dispersion (Range, Standard Diviation)refers to the spread of the values around the central tendency

 Inferential statistics
t-test, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA), regression analysis, Correlation is a measure of the relation between two or more variables. we use inferential statistics to make judgments of the probability that an observed difference between groups. Thus, we use inferential statistics to make inferences from our data to more general conditions; we use descriptive statistics simply to describe what's going on in our data.

Statistics methods
 Central tendency

 Exercise

http://www.quia.com/rr/51667.html
http://www.regentsprep.org/Regents/Math/mean/Pmeasure.htm
http://www.fortunecity.com/greenfield/grizzly/432/Research.htm http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/statdesc.php

The Research Report


 Researh proposal  Research report  Research presentation

Research report articles vary in how they are organized, :


       

Abstract - Brief summary of the contents of the article Introduction - A explanation of the purpose of the study, a statement of the research question(s) the study intends to address Literature review - A critical assessment of the work done so far on this topic, to show how the current study relates to what has already been done Methods - How the study was carried out (e.g. instruments or equipment, procedures, methods to gather and analyze data) Results - What was found in the course of the study Discussion - What do the results mean Conclusion - State the conclusions and implications of the results, and discuss how it relates to the work reviewed in the literature review; also, point to directions for further work in the area http://www.wesleyan.edu/libr/tut/litrev/thelitrev.html

Research Proposal
  

Title Page Abstract (on a separate single page) The Body (no page breaks between sections in the body)

Introduction (2-3 pages) Methods (7-10 pages) Sample (1 page) Measures (2-3 pages) Design (2-3 pages) Procedures (2-3 pages) Results (2-3 pages) Conclusions (1-2 pages)
   

References Tables (one to a page) Figures (one to a page) Appendices

Formatting http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/formatting.php

Question?
 How can you solve business problem?  Why do you need to know how to write the research proposal?  Do you understand the research process?  Do you know why do you have to identify problem statement clearly before doing research?  Do you know why sampling and statistics are important to the research result?  Why do you have to identify the limitation of your study?  Why the research report and presentation are important?  Do you know how to apply the steps of the research process ?

Questions
 1.If you want to set up a coffee shop near the university and school, what is your research topic?  2.Identify the problem statement.  3.Identify the objectives  4.The hypotheses  5. The research methodology.  6. The examples of the questionaire