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ECE 442 Power Electronics 1

Class E Resonant Inverter


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Mode 1 Operation Turn Q1 ON at t = 0
Turn Q1 OFF when v
o
= 0 volts
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The current through the transistor (switch)
T s o
i i i = +
7
0.072
Q
o
>
s
For sinusoidal current,
The switch is turned OFF when the output
voltage becomes = 0, and the current is
transferred to the branch containing the
capacitor.
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Mode 1
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Mode 2 Operation
Q
1
is turned OFF
Diode D limits negative switch voltage
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Capacitor current becomes
C S o
T
C e
i i i
dv
i C
dt
= +
=
When the switch current falls to zero,
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Mode 2
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Waveform Summary
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Example 8.9
A class E inverter operates at resonance
and has V
S
= 12 Volts and R = 10 .
The switching frequency is 25 kHz.
Determine the optimum values of L, C, C
e
,
and L
e
Use MultiSim to plot the output voltage v
0

and the switch voltage v
T
for k = 0.304.
Assume that Q = 7.
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0.4001
2.165
1
0.3533
e
s
e
s
s
s
R
L
C
R
L R
C
e
e
e
e
=
=
=
Optimum Parameters
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Example 8.9 (continued)
3
3
3
0.4001 (0.4001)(10)
25.47
2 (25 10 )
2.165 2.165
1.38
10(2 )(25 10 )
(7)(10)
445.63
2 (25 10 )
e
s
e
s
s
R
L H
C F
R
QR
L H

e t

e t

e t
= = =

= = =

= = =

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1
0.3533
1
0.3533
1
0.0958
( 0.3533 )
s
s
s
s s
s
L R
C
QR
R
C
C F
QR R
e
e
e
e e

e
=
| |
=
|
\ .
= =

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Check the damping factor
and resonant frequency
0
6
6
0
6 6
0
2
1
2
10 0.0958 10
2 445.63 10
0.0733
1 1
2
2 (445.63 10 )(0.0958 10 )
24.39
R
R C
L
L
LC
f
LC
f kHz
o
o
e
o
o
t
t


= = =

=
= =

=
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Example 8.9
Q1
BJT_NPN_VI RTUAL*
Le
25.47uH
Vs
12 V
C
0.0958uF
L
445.63uH
R
10 Ohm
Ce
1.38uF
Rb
500 Ohm
XFG1
XSC1
A B
G
T
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Load Voltage
Switch Voltage
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Class E Resonant Rectifier
sin
s m
v V t e =
o
V ~ constant
for power factor correction
very large
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Mode 1 Operation -- D1 OFF
sin
LC s o
v V t V e =
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Mode 2 Operation -- D1 ON
sin
sin( )
L s o
L m o
v V t V
i I t I
e
e |
=
=
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D1 switches OFF at 0 volts
(0 voltage switching)
When the current i
L
falls to 0, the diode turns OFF.
When i
L
falls below I
o
, C discharges via D
1

At turn-off, i
D
=i
L
=0 and v
D
=v
C
=0.
The capacitor current, i
C
=C(dv
C
/dt)=0, or (dv
C
/dt) = 0.


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Waveform Summary
i
L
= i
C
+ i
D

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Example 8.10
A Class E rectifier supplies a load power
of P
L
=400mW at V
o
=4V. The peak supply
voltage is V
m
=10V. The supply frequency
is f=250kHz. The peak-to-peak ripple on
the dc output voltage is V
o
=40mV.
Determine the values of L, C, and C
f
.
Determine the rms and dc currents of L
and C.
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Example 8.10 (continued)
Choose C=10nF.
The resonant frequency will be 250kHz.
Details on the following slide
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0
2 2 2 3 2 9
0
2
0
2 2
0
3
0
0
0
0
3
0
3 3
0
1
2
1 1
40.6
4 4 (250 10 ) (10 10 )
4
40
400 10
4
100
40
2
100 10
5
2 2(250 10 )(40 10 )
L
L
f
f
f
LC
L H
f C
V
P
R
V
R
P
V
I mA
R
I
V
fC
I
C F
f V
t

t t

=
= = =

=
= = = O

= = =
A =

= = =
A
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2 2 2
1 2
0
0
2
2
( )
( )
( )
( )
...
4
100
40
10
250
40
250
100 203.1
2
100
250
176.78
2
0
rms dc rms rms
dc
m
m
L rms
L dc
C rms
C dc
I I I I
V
I I mA
R
V
I mA
R
I mA
I mA
I mA
I
= + + +
= = = =
= = =
= + =
=
= =
=
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Example 8.10 (MultiSim)
Vs
7.07 V
250kHz
0Deg
L
40.5uH
D1
DI ODE_VI RTUAL
C
10nF
Cf
5uF
R
40 Ohm
XSC1
A B
G
T
Rsample
1 Ohm
XSC2
A B
G
T
U1
DC 1MOhm 3.812 V
+
-
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Load Current
500 mA
p-p

Load Voltage
50 mV
p-p