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Fibre Channel Storage Area Networks (SAN)

Module 3.3

2006 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved.

Fibre Channel Storage Area Networks (SAN)


Upon completion of this module, you will be able to: Describe the features and benefits of SAN.

Describe the physical and logical elements of SAN.


List common SAN topologies. Compare and contrast connectivity devices. Describe connectivity options of SAN. Describe the I/O flow in the SAN environment. List SAN management considerations. Describe applications of a SAN strategy.
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In this module
This module contains the following lessons: Fibre Channel SAN Overview.

The Components of a SAN.


FC SAN Connectivity. SAN Management. SAN Deployment Examples. Case Study and Applications of FC SAN.

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Storage Area Networks (SAN) - 3

Lesson: Fibre Channel SAN Overview


Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to: Define a FC SAN.

Describe the features of FC SAN based storage.


Describe the benefits of an FC SAN based storage strategy.

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Business Needs and Technology Challenges


Information when and where the business user needs it Integrate technology infrastructure with business processes Flexible, resilient architecture

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What is a SAN?
Array

Dedicated storage network

Organized connections among:


Storage
Switches Server

Communication devices
Systems

Secure Robust
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Servers Storage

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Evolution of Fibre Channel SAN


HUB Switches

Servers

Switches

Storage

Servers

Storage

Servers

SAN Islands FC Arbitrated Loop

Interconnected SANs FC Switched Fabric

Arrays

Storage

Enterprise SANs FC Switched Fabric

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Storage Area Networks (SAN) - 7

Benefits of a SAN
High bandwidth
Fibre Channel

SCSI extension
Block I/O

Resource Consolidation
Centralized storage and management

Scalability
Up to 16 million devices

Secure Access
Isolation and filtering

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Lesson Summary
Topics in this lesson included: Definition of a SAN

Features and Benefits of SANs

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Lesson: The Components of a SAN


Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to: Describe the elements of a SAN.
Host Bus Adapter (HBA) Fiber Cabling
Fibre Channel Switch /Hub Storage Array Management System

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Components of a Storage Area Network


Host Bus Adapter (HBA)

Fiber Cabling
Fibre Channel Switch /Hub Storage Array Management System
HBA
Switches

SAN-attached Server SAN Arrays

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Nodes, Ports, & Links


HBA
Tx Rx

Port 0

Link

Port 0 Port 1 Port 1

Port n Port n

Node

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Host Bus Adapters


HBAs perform low-level interface functions automatically to minimize the impact on host processor performance

HBA

Switches

Arrays

Server

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Connectivity

Single Mode Fiber

Switches

Multimode Fiber Host Storage

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Connectors
Node Connectors:

SC Duplex Connectors
LC Duplex Connectors

Patch panel Connectors ST Simplex Connectors

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Connectivity Devices
Basis for SAN communication
Hubs, Switches and Directors

Server

HBA

Switches

Arrays

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Storage Resources
Storage Array
Provides storage consolidation and centralization

Features of an array
High Availability/Redundancy Performance Business Continuity Multiple host connect
Server

HBA

Switches

Arrays

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SAN Management Software


A suite of tools used in a SAN to manage the interface between host and storage arrays. Provides integrated management of SAN environment. Web based GUI or CLI

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Lesson: Summary
Topics in this lesson included: The elements of a SAN:
Host Bus Adapter (HBA) Fiber Cabling
Fibre Channel Switch /Hub Storage Array Management System

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Lesson: Fibre Channel SAN Connectivity


Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to: Describe the Fibre Channel SAN connectivity methods and topologies Describe Fibre Channel devices Describe Fibre Channel communication protocols Describe Fibre Channel login procedures

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Fibre Channel SAN Connectivity


Core networking principles applied to storage Servers are attached to 2 distinct networks
Back-end Front-end
IP network SAN switches directors

Users & Application Clients

Servers & Applications

Storage & Application Data


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What is Fibre Channel?


SAN Transport Protocol
Integrated set of standards (ANSI) Encapsulates SCSI

A High Speed Serial Interface


Allows SCSI commands to be transferred over a storage network.

Standard allows for multiple protocols over a single interface.

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Fibre Channel Ports


Servers
NL Port NL Port NL Port

Server HUB HUB

Node

Node
Storage

NL Port FL Port FL Port

NL Port Node

Server
N Port

E Port
F Port

Switch

F Port

Node

Switch
Switch

E Port N Port Node

F Port

F Port

Node

N Port

N Port

Node

Array

Array Storage
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World Wide Names

Unique 64 bit identifier. Static to the port.


Used to physically identify a port or node within the SAN Similar to a NIC MAC address

Additionally, each node is assigned a unique port ID (address) within the SAN
Used to communicate between nodes within the SAN Similar in functionality to an IP address on a NIC

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World Wide Names: Example

World Wide Name Array

5
0101

0
0000

0
0000

6
0110

0
0000

1
0001

6
0110

0
0000

0
0000

0
0000

6
0110

0
0000

0
0000

1
0001

B
1011

2
0010

Company ID 24 bits

Port

Model seed 32 bits

World Wide Name - HBA

0
Reserved 12 bits

Company OUI 24 bits

Company Specific 24 bits

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Fibre Channel Logins

Fabric
N Port 1 Process a F Port F Port N Port 2

Process x

Process b

Process y

Process c

Process z

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Fibre Channel Addressing


Fibre Channel addresses are used for transporting frames from source ports to destination ports. Address assignment methods vary with the associated topology (loop vs switch)
Loop self assigning Switch centralized authority

Certain addresses are reserved


FFFFFC is Name Server FFFFFE is Fabric Login

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What is a Fabric?
Virtual space used by nodes to communicate with each other once they are joined.
Arrays

Servers

Component identifiers:
Domain ID Worldwide Name (WWN)

Fabric

Switches

Storage

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Fibre Channel Topologies


Arbitrated Loop (FC-AL)
Devices attached to a shared loop

Analogous to Token Ring


Clients

HUB

Storage

Switched Fabric (FC-SW)


All devices connected to a Fabric Switch Analogous to an IP switch

Arrays

Initiators have unique dedicated I/O paths to Targets

Clients

Switch

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Switch versus Hub Comparison


Switches (FC-SW)
FC-SW architecture scalable to millions of connections.

Hubs (FC-AL)
FC-AL is limited to 127 connections (substantially fewer connections can be implemented for ideal system performance). Bandwidth per device diminishes with increased connectivity due to sharing of connections. Low cost connection.

Bandwidth per device stays constant with increased connectivity. Bandwidth is scalable due to dedicated connections.
Higher availability than hubs. Higher cost.

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How an Arbitrated Loop Hub Works


Node A
NL_Port NL_Port #1 #1

Node D
Transmit
Hub_Pt Byp Byp Byp Byp Hub_Pt

Receive

NL_Port NL_Port #2 #2

HBA HBA

HBA

Receive

Transmit

Node B
NL_Port NL_Port #4 #4

Node C
Transmit
Byp Byp Byp Byp Hub_Pt Hub_Pt

Receive

NL_Port NL_Port #3 #3

HBA HBA

FA FA

Receive

Transmit

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How a Switched Fabric Works


Node A
NL_Port N_Port #1 #1
HBA HBA

Node D
Transmit
Port Port

Receive

N_Port #2 NL_Port Storage HBA Port

#2

Receive

Transmit

Node B
NL_Port N_Port #4 #4
HBA HBA

Node C
Transmit Receive
N_Port #3 NL_Port Storage FA Port

#3

Receive

Port

Port

Transmit

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Inter Switch Links (ISLs)


Multimode Fiber Switch 1Gb=500m 2Gb=300m

Switch

Single-mode Fiber Switch

up to10 km

Switch

Metro ring or point-to-point topologies with or without path protection

Switch

Router

Router

Switch

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Topology: Mesh Fabric


Can be either partial or full mesh All switches are connected to each other

Host and Storage can be located anywhere in the fabric


Host and Storage can be localized to a single switch

Partial Mesh
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Full Mesh
Storage Area Networks (SAN) - 34

Full Mesh Benefits


Benefits
All storage/servers are a maximum of one ISL hop away. Hosts and storage may be located anywhere in the fabric. Multiple paths for data using the Fabric Shortest Path First (FSPF) algorithm. Fabric management made simpler.

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Topology: Simple Core-Edge Fabric


Can be two or three tiers
Single Core Tier One or two Edge Tiers
Host Tier

In a two tier topology, storage is usually connected to the Core Benefits


High Availability Medium Scalability Medium to maximum Connectivity
Storage Tier

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Core-Edge Benefits
Simplifies propagation of fabric data.
One ISL hop access to all storage in the fabric.

Efficient design based on node type.


Traffic management and predictability.

Easier calculation of ISL loading and traffic patterns.

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Lesson: Summary
Topics in this lesson included: The Fibre Channel SAN connectivity methods and topologies Fibre Channel devices Fibre Channel communication protocols Fibre Channel login procedures

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Lesson: SAN Management


Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to: Describe SAN management functions
Infrastructure protection Provisioning
Capacity Management Performance Management

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SAN Management Overview


Infrastructure protection Fabric Management

Storage Allocation
Capacity Tracking Performance Management

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Infrastructure Security
Physical security
Locked data center
Corporate LAN Secure VPN or Firewall

Centralized server and storage infrastructure


Controlled administrator access

Servers

Control Station

Management LAN (Private)

Switch

Switch

In-band (FC) Storage Arrays


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Out-band (IP)
Storage Area Networks (SAN) - 41

Switch/Fabric Management Tools


Vendor supplied management software
Embedded within the switch Graphical User Interface (GUI) or Command Line Interface (CLI)

Functionality
Common functions
Performance monitoring Discovery Access Management (Zoning)

Different look and feel between vendors

Additional third party software add-ons


Enhanced functionality, such as automation

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Fabric Management: Zoning


Servers

Arrays

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Zoning Components

Zones Sets (Library)

Zone Set

Zones (Library)

Zone

Zone

Zone

Members (WWNs)

Member

Member

Member

Member

Member

Member

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Types of Zoning
Servers

WWN 10:00:00:00:C9:20:DE:56

Domain ID = 21 Port = 1
Switches

Array

WWN 10:00:00:00:C9:20:DC:40

Domain ID = 25 Port = 3 WWN 50:06:04:82:E8:91:2B:9E

Examples:
WWN Zone 1 = 10:00:00:00:C9:20:DC:40; 50:06:04:82:E8:91:2B:9E Port Zone 1 = 21,1; 25,3 Mixed Zone 1 = 10:00:00:00:C9:20:DE:56; Port 21/1
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Single HBA Zoning


Optimally, one HBA per zone.
Nodes can only talk to Storage in the same zone

Storage Ports may be members of more than one zone. HBA ports are isolated from each other to avoid potential problems associated with the SCSI discovery process.
Also known as chatter

Decreases the impact of a changes in a Fabric by reducing the amount of nodes that must communicate.

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Provisioning: LUN Masking


Restricts volume access to specific hosts and/or host clusters. Servers can only access the volumes that they are assigned. Access controlled in the storage and not in the fabric
Makes distributed administration secure

Tools to manage masking


GUI Command Line

Switch

Servers

Array

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Capacity Management
Tracking and managing assets
Number of ports assigned Storage allocated

Utilization profile
Indicates resource utilization over time Allows for forecasting

SAN management software provides the tools


Inventory databases Report writers

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Performance Management
What is it?
Capturing metrics and monitoring trends Proactively or Reactively responding Planning for future growth

Areas and functions


Host, Fabric and Storage Performance Building baselines for the environment

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Lesson: Summary
Topics in this lesson included:
Infrastructure protection Provisioning Capacity Management Performance Management

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Lesson: SAN Deployment Examples


Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to: Describe common SAN deployment considerations

Explain SAN deployment examples


Describe SAN Challenges

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When Should a SAN be Used?


SANs are optimized for high bandwidth block level I/O Suited for the demands of real time applications
Databases: OLTP (online transaction processing) Video streaming

Any applications with high transaction rate and high data volatility
Stringent requirements on I/O latency and throughput

Used to consolidate heterogeneous storage environments


Physical consolidation Logical consolidation
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Consolidation Example: DAS Challenge

Servers

Servers

Servers

Storage

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Consolidation Example: SAN Solution


Servers Servers Servers Array

Switch

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Connectivity Example: Challenge


Server Server

Array

Switches Server

Array

Server

Server

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Connectivity Example: Solution


Server Server

Switches
Server

Server Array

Server

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FC SAN Challenges
Infrastructure
New, separate networks are required.

Skill-sets
As a relatively new technology, FC SAN administrative skills need to be cultivated.

Cost
Large investments are required for effective implementation.

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Lesson: Summary
Topics in this lesson included: Common SAN deployment considerations.

SAN Implementation Scenarios


Consolidation Connectivity

SAN Challenges

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Module Summary
Topics in this module included: The features and benefits of SAN.

The physical and logical elements of SAN.


The common SAN topologies. Comparison of SAN connectivity devices. The connectivity options of SAN. The I/O flow in the SAN environment. SAN management considerations. Applications of a SAN strategy.
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Check Your Knowledge


Name three key features of a SAN implementation. What is a Switch?

Describe how a SAN can be connected?


What is one common SAN topology? What are two management considerations for a SAN environment? What is a Fabric?

What is a Core-Edge Fabric?

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Apply Your Knowledge

Connectrix Family of

SAN Switches and Directors

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Apply Your Knowledge


Upon completion of this topic, you will be able to: Describe EMCs product implementation of the Connectrix Family of SAN Switches and Directors.

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The Connectrix Family


High-speed Fibre Channel connectivity1 to 10 gigabits per second Highly resilient switching technology, and options for IP storage networking. configure to adapt to any business need
MDS-9509 ED-10000M

ED-48000B
MDS-9506 AP-7420B ED-140M MP-2640M MP-1620M MDS-9140 DS-4100B MDS-9120 MDS-9216i/A

DS-4700M DS-220B DS-4400M

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Switches versus Directors Connectrix Switches


High availability through redundant deployment Redundant fans and power supplies Departmental deployment or part of Data Center deployment Small to medium fabrics

Connectrix Directors
Redundant

everything provides optimal serviceability and highest availability Data center deployment

Multi-protocol possibilities

Maximum scalability Maximum performance Large fabrics Multi-protocol

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Connectrix Switch - DS-220B


Provides eight, 12, or 16 ports
Auto-detecting 1, 2, and 4 Gb/s Fibre Channel ports Single, fixed power supply Field-replaceable optics Redundant cooling

Simplified setupno previous SAN experience needed


Eliminates the need for advanced skills to manage IP addressing or Zoning

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Connectrix Director MDS 9509


Multi-transport switchFibre Channel, FICON, iSCSI, FCIP
16 to 224 Fibre Channel ports 456 Gigabit Ethernet ports for iSCSI or FCIP Non-blocking fabric 1 / 2 Gb/s auto-sensing ports

All components are fully redundant

MDS-9509
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Connectrix Management Interfaces


MDS-Series Fabric Manager

M-Series Web Server

B-Series Web Tools

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Module Summary
The Connectrix Family of Switches and Directors; Has three product sets:
Connectrix B-Series Connectrix MDS 9000 Series
Connectrix M-Series

Provides highly available access to storage. Connects a wide range of host and storage technologies.

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