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Quantum Lasers,

M. Momeni

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Quantum Lasers

EE 566 Optical Communications


Massoud MOMENI
Grad Microelectronics
mmomeni@buffalo.edu
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Overview
1. Quantum Lasers Q L

a) Single-Quantum Well Laser SQW L
b) Multiple-Quantum Well Laser MQW L
c) Separate Confinement Heterostructure Laser SCH L
d) Graded-Index SCH Laser GRINSCH L
e) Quantum Cascade Laser QC L
f) Quantum Dot Laser QD L

2. Summary

3. References and
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1. Quantum Lasers
LASER = Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation
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Single-Quantum Well Laser (SQWL)
Double
Heterostructure:
G Fp Fn
E E E > ) ( 1 ) (
V V V C
E f hf E f > +
or, alternatively,
Basic Laser condition:
nm
hf
V > 0
P p N
E
V

E
C

E
Fp
E
Fn

E
el
E
hole
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Refractive Index and Mode Profile
p
+
n
+
P p n
+
P p N
Homostructure Single Heterostructure (SHS) Double Heterostructure (DHS)
n
optical field
Optical confinement is higher for a DHS
Electrical confinement is higher for a DHS

lower I
th
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Multiple-Quantum Well Laser (MQWL)
P p P
E
V

E
C

MQW using isotype SQW:
mini bands
P p P p P p P p P
hf hf hf hf
MQW DFB
MQW DFB
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Separate Confinement Heterostructure (SCH)
hf
E
V
x

P p N
E
C
InP
InGaAsP
InGaAsP
InP
I
n
G
a
A
s
P

I
n
G
a
A
s

MQW region SCH region SCH region cladding cladding
5 nm 10 nm 50 nm
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E
C
E
G
( InP )
Graded-Index SCH Laser (GRINSCH L)
E
G
( InGaAsP )
E
G
( InGaAs )
E
V
GRIN region GRIN region MQW region
n
cladding cladding
x
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Quantum Cascade Laser (QC L) Principle
interband transition:
intersubband transition:
E
appl

Tunneling rate >> t
3
= 1 ps
and t
2
= 0.3 ps << t
32
> 1 ps population inversion
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QC Laser -Tailoring
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QC Laser Data
Data [15]:
Applications [16]:
Military and Security
Commercial, Medical
Free-Space Optical Communication Systems and Astronomy
Gas detection based on laser spectroscopy with CW or pulsed QC DFB
lasers (chemical sensors)

L

[m]
P
out

[mW]
J
th
[A/cm
2
] /
E
th
[kV/cm]
operation
mode
T
first demo
[year]
$$$
3.4 80 200 300 (CW)
up to 1000 (PM)
250 290 /
7.5 48

PM or CW
on cooler
350 1994 AT&T
Bell Labs
(later)
Material systems: GaAs based, InP based, Si / SiGe on GaSb, InAs / AlSb on GaSb
CW = continuous wave; PM = pulse mode
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Quantum Dot Lasers (QD L) 1. Principle
b) tunneling-injection QD laser:
a) schematic view:
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QD L 2. Principle
a) Prevention of parasitic b) Limit case
recombination in the OCL
n
-
c
l
a
d
d
i
n
g

p
-
c
l
a
d
d
i
n
g

O
C
L

O
C
L

Q
D

electrons
holes
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2. Summary
Quantum Lasers use the structures we have discussed so far in order to

1. optimize the properties of a simple Fabry-Perot Laser (L, R, g, o),

2. Increase efficiency (q)

3. reduce the threshold current (I
th
) and its temperature dependency,

4. change the wavelength of the laser beam (),

5. achieve continuous wave (CW) operation @ RT, and

6. increase the output power (P).

Fabrication:

1. Metallorganic chemical vapor deposition MOCVD
2. Molecular beam epitaxy MBE
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What we left out (more presentations?)
Basics:

o Quantum Effects (energy quantization, first and second order tunneling effect,)

o Simple Fabry Perot Laser (FPL) and characteristics

o Concept of gain-guided (active) or index-guided (passive) lasers (wave guiding), e.g. in
buried heterostructure lasers (BHS), or separate lateral confinement (LC)

o Distributed bragg reflector (DBR), distributed feedback bragg (reflector) (DFB)

R&D:

- Blue Lasers or GaN Lasers

- Tunable Lasers (TL) or Tunable Diode Lasers (TDL)

- Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSEL)

- Strained heterostructure QW lasers
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3. References (QC L)
[1] Sirtori C., Nagle J., Quantum Cascade Lasers: the quantum technology for semiconductor lasers in the
mid-far-infrared. Comptes Rendus Physique, In Press, Corrected Proof, Sep. 2003
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6X19-49FGMWM-6/2/299ee308e587b6215f4731fbe5cfd566

[2] Garciaa M., Normand E., Stanley C.R., Ironside C.N., Farmer C.D., Duxbury G., Langford N., "An
AlGaAsGaAs quantum cascade laser operating with a thermoelectric cooler for spectroscopy of NH3.
Optics Communications, In Press, Uncorrected Proof, Sep. 2003.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6TVF-49FXMFB-3/2/607fb52178f815aca3c266c7cf670524

[3] Khler, R., Tredicucci A., Beltram F., Beere H.E., Linfield E.H., Davies A.G., Ritchie D.A., Iotti, R.C.,
Rossi F., "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser" letters to nature, vol. 417 no. 6885, pp. 156159,
May 2002.

[4] Sirtori C., "Applied physics: Bridge for the terahertz gap." Nature news and views, vol. 417, no. 6885, pp.
132133, May 2002.

[5] Beck M., Hofstetter D., Aellen T., Faist J., Oesterle U., Ilegems M., Gini E., Melchior H., Continuous
wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperature. Science, vol. 295, issue 5553,
pp. 301305, Jan. 2002.


[6] Kosterev A.A., Tittel F.K., "Chemical Sensors Based on Quantum Cascade Lasers." IEEE Journal of
Quantum Electronics, vol. 38, no. 6, , pp. 582591, June 2002.
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4. References (QD L)
[7] Asryan L.V., Luryi S., "Tunneling-Injection Quantum-Dot Laser: Ultrahigh Temperature Stability" IEEE
Journal of Quantum Electronics, vol. 37, no. 7, pp. 905910, July 2001.
http://www.ee.sunysb.edu/~serge/177.pdf http://www.ee.sunysb.edu/~serge/publist.pdf

[8] Asryan L.V., Luryi S., Suris R.A., "Internal Efficiency of Semiconductor Lasers With a Quantum-Confined
Active Region." IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 404418, March 2003.
http://www.ee.sunysb.edu/~serge/191.pdf

[9] Pelton M., Yamamoto Y., "Ultralow threshold laser using a single quantum dot and a microsphere
cavity." Physical Review A, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 22182241, March 1999.

[10] Maximov M.V., Asryan L.V., Shernyakov Yu.M., Tsatsulnikov A.F., Kaiander I.N., Nikolaev V.V., Kovsh
A.R., Mikhrin S.S., Ustinov V.M., Zhukov A.E., Alferov Zh.I., Ledenstov N.N., Bimberg D., "Gain and
Threshold Characteristics of Long Wavelength Lasers Based on InAs/GaAs Quantum Dots Formed by
Activated Alloy Phase Separation." IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 676683, May
2001.

[11] Luryi S., Xu J.M., Zaslavsky A., Future Trends in Microelectronics: the Nano Millennium, Wiley-IEEE
Press, 2002, pp. 219230.
http://www.ee.sunysb.edu/~serge/180.pdf

[12] Bludau, W. Halbleiter-Optoelektronik, Mnchen, Wien: Hanser, 1995, pp. 122123, 151155, 180187.
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History of Lasers

Welch D.F., A Brief History of High-Power Semiconductor Lasers. IEEE
Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 1470
1477, Dec. 2000.


Laser history 19171996:
http://home.achilles.net/~jtalbot/history/


Laser at Bell Laboratories from 19581998:
http://www.bell-labs.com/history/laser/
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Where to find papers
Where to look for articles on these topics: (use ScienceDirect & IEEE Xplore)

IEEE http://www.ieee.org/
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics
IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
IEEE Proceedings on Optoelectronics

Nature http://www.nature.com/

Science http://www.sciencemag.org/

Applied Physics Letters http://ojps.aip.org/aplo/top.jsp

Laser Focus World http://lfw.pennnet.com/home.cfm

Elsevier http://www.elsevier.com/locate/optcom
Elsevier Optics Communications
Elsevier Comptes Rendus Physique
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Wanna BUY a quantum laser?
Go online

Click on http://lfw.pennnet.com/home.cfm to get to Laser Focus World

Look for Buyers Guide in the left column and click on it!

Type the keywords! E.g. Quantum Cascade Laser

Youll get a list with companies (in this case just one) offering a quantum
laser or something related to it, click on the entry and then the companys
link!

You are transferred to the companys website

BUY ALL YOU WANT OR ALL YOU NEED!
(datasheet, images etc. readily available)
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1. Example: Quantum Cascade Laser
Laser Components Instrument Group
Address: 10 Upton Drive
Wilmington, MA 01887
Phone: 978-658-9100
Fax: 978-658-1888
URL: www.laser-components.com
Email: info@laser-components.com
Employees: 5
Year Founded: 1976
Job Openings: unfortunately no
For prices, talk to Gary Hayes:
This product is a


HIGHLIGHT!
10.000 15.000 US $
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n
N
E
2. Example: Single-Mode SQW GRINSCH L
Axcel Photonics, Inc.
Address: 45 Bartlett Street
Marlborough, MA 01752
Phone: 508-481-9200
Fax: 508-481-9261
URL: http://www.axcelphotonics.com/
Email: sales@axcelphotonics.com
Employees: 18
Job Opening: Office Manager

For prices, call John Carry:
1 US $ per mW, up to 500 mW
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Pricelist (all in US Dollars)

MQW DFB Structures:
InGaAsP MQW DFB Structure @ 1550 nm 779.35
InGaAsP MQW DFB Structure @ 1310 nm 467.00
(more than 600 $ off if you choose a FP!)
AlGalnP Index guided MQW structures 24.00 189.70

VCSEL Structures: 8.00 (for each of 50)
26.00 (for a single one)

Blue Laser Module 1,795.00 2,695.00
System 2,195.00 9,495.00

Quantum Cascade Lasers astronomical, even for the diode only

Sources: INTELITE, Inc. http://www.intelite.com
Thorlabs GmbH http://www.thorlabs.com/index.cfm
Laser Components Instrument Group www.laser-components.com
Axcel Photonics, Inc. http://www.axcelphotonics.com/
VCSEL
MQW DFB
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Abbreviations (Alphabetical Order)
BHS / BH Buried Heterostructure
CW Continuous Wave QL Quantum Laser
DBR Distributed Bragg Reflector QW Quantum Well
DFB Distributed Feedback Bragg SCH Separate Confinement Heterostructure
DHS Double Heterostructure SQW Single-Quantum Well
FP Fabry Perot QC Quantum Cascade
GRINSCH Graded-Index SCH QD Quantum Dot
LASER Light Amplification by Stimulated
Emission of Radiation
SHS Single Heterostructure
LC Lateral Confinement SLC Separate Lateral Confinement
MQW Multiple-Quantum Well TL Tunable Lasers
OLC Optical Confinement Layer TDL Tunable Diode Lasers
PM Pulse Mode

VCSEL Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers
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For those who want to know more




Tutorial on Semiconductor Lasers