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Salman Khan CMRIMS bangalore

3/09/2011

Sub: Environmental Biotechnology (3MBT 04)

SALMAN KHAN M.Sc III Semester (bt) Reg no: 10204015

Salman Khan CMRIMS bangalore

3/09/2011

FUEL
Any material that stores energy that can later be extracted to perform mechanical work in a controlled manner. Most fuels used by humans undergo combustion, a redox reaction in which a combustible substance releases energy after it ignites and reacts with the oxygen in the air. Other processes used to convert fuel into energy include various other exothermic chemical reactions and nuclear reactions, such as nuclear fission or nuclear fusion

Salman Khan CMRIMS bangalore

3/09/2011

CONVENTIONAL FUELS

PETROL (Gasoline) 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane (isooctane) 34 megajoules/Lt The flash point of gasoline is about 72C Viscosity of around 0.88-0.71 cSt at 40C Fractional distillation @ 40C

DIESEL - C12H23 38.6 megajoules/Lt Diesel at -45C 1.3 to 4.1 cSt at 40C Fractional distillation @ 250C

Salman Khan CMRIMS bangalore

3/09/2011

Standard

Referenc e

Date 2000 2001-04 2004Present 2010 onwards

CO 17.3 to 32.6 11.20 4.0 to 4.5 2.1

HC 2.7 to 3.7

NOx

PM

India 2000 Euro 1 Bharat Stage II Bharat Stage III Bharat Stage IV Euro 2 Euro 3 Euro 4

-------------- -----------------14.4 7.0 to 8.0 5.0 ----------------0.15 0.10

2.40 1.1 0.66

Emission Standards for all commuting vehicles, g/kWh

Salman Khan CMRIMS bangalore

3/09/2011

Salman Khan CMRIMS bangalore

3/09/2011

WHAT ARE BIOFUELS?

A combustible fuel produced from any sort of vegetation or other organic derivative (biomass).

3 MAIN TYPES: Bioethanol Biodiesel Purified biogas

OVERVIEW OF BIO FUEL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES


Biofuel type Bioethanol Specific name Cellulosic bioethanol Feedstock Conversion Technologies

Lignocellulosic biomass and Advanced hydrolysis & biowaste fermentaion

Biogas

SNG (Synthetic Natural Gas)

Lignocellulosic biomass and residues

Pyrolysis/Gasification

Biodiesel

Biomass to Liquid (BTL), Fischer-Tropsch (FT) Lignocellulosic biomass and Pyrolysis/Gasification & diesel, synthetic (bio)diesel residues synthesis

Other Biofuels

Biomethanol, heavier (mixed) alcohols, biodimethylether (Bio-DME)

Lignocellulosic biomass and residues

Gasification & synthesis

Biohydrogen

Lignocellulosic biomass and Gasification & synthesis or biowaste biological process


Salman Khan CMRIMS bangalore

Salman Khan CMRIMS bangalore

3/09/2011

HOW AN ENGINE WORKS?

Salman Khan CMRIMS bangalore

3/09/2011

WHAT ARE THE BIOFUEL OPTIONS?


Starch conversion to ethanol (maize, wheat, rice, various tubers) Sucrose conversion to ethanol (sugar cane) Biodiesel: plant ( algae) oils converted to diesel Ligno-cellulose conversion to ethanol

Salman Khan CMRIMS bangalore

3/09/2011

ETHANOL AS A FUEL

Ethanol, CH3CH2OH, M.wt= 46.1, is an alcohol, a group of chemical compounds whose molecules contain a hydroxyl group, -OH, bonded to a carbon atom

Ethanol melts at -114.1C, boils at 78.5C, and has a density of 0.789 g/ml at 20C. Its low freezing point of temperatures below -40C, Auto ignition temperature being 423C. Specific gravity of Ethanol is 0.79 Octane number of 106-111 Calorific value of 11,500

GASOHOL

Salman Khan CMRIMS bangalore

3/09/2011

Ethanol fuel mixtures have "E" numbers which describe the percentage of ethanol fuel in the mixture by volume, for example, E85 is 85% anhydrous ethanol and 15% gasoline. Gasoline is the typical fuel mixed with ethanol but there are other fuel additives that can be mixed, such as an ignition improver used in the E95 Swedish blend. Low ethanol blends, from E5 to E25, are also known as gasohol, though internationally the most common use of the term gasohol refers to the E10 blend. India is under E5 norms.

Salman Khan CMRIMS bangalore

3/09/2011

INDIA
By 1980 India became self sufficient for ethanol production. Sources of ethanol: Maize (Zea mays)- 7th Place in world yield, 11 million MT. Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)Ranks 2nd in world total production, 348 million MT. Agricultural waste Low average cost of Rs.18/liter projected Annual production capacity of 1.5 Billion liters

Salman Khan CMRIMS bangalore

3/09/2011

Mitsubishi Lancer EX 2011 Volkswagen Jetta TDI 2010

Honda Civic FLEX 2010

Chevorlet Tahoe S1.8 2010

Salman Khan CMRIMS bangalore

3/09/2011

STARCH TO ETHANOL
Advantages

Maize: Agricultural infrastructure in place. Fermentation and distilling technology Will lower oil imports increase energy security cause oil prices to decrease. Will increase income of farmers Will stimulate economy

Salman Khan CMRIMS bangalore

3/09/2011

MICROBES EMPLOYED
Fungi: (95%)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Rosillo-Calle & Hall, 1987) Saccharomyces saki Saccharomyces oviformis Saccharospora crassa Aspergillus oryzae Neurospora crassa Trichosporium cutaneum Candida utilis Candida albicans (Pathogenic) Another problem overcome was the inability of S. cerevisiae to process the complex sugar xylose, a common component of leaves and stems. To solve this hurdle three genes from the yeast species Picchia stipitis, a natural fermenter of xylose, were introduced. ( Genetic engineering- By Grant Banks January 2, 2011

Bacteria: (5%)
Clostridium sporogenes Clostridium thermocellum Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum Clostridium papyrosolvans Clostridium indolis Zymomonas mobilis , Ssp. Pomaceas (anaerobe) Spirochaeta aurantia Spirochaeta litoralis Sarcina ventriculi Leuconostoc mesenteroides

3/09/2011

Salman Khan CMRIMS bangalore

Salman Khan CMRIMS bangalore

3/09/2011

CONVERSION OF SUGARS TO ETHANOL


1. Starch (Maize) to Simpler Glucose (by hydrolysis) Starch (C6H10O5)n + Water Amylase Glucose C6H12O6 2. Sucrose (Sugarcane) to Glucose (by hydrolysis)

Sucrose C12H22O11 + water Sucrase Glucose C6H12O6 + Fructose C6H12O Fructose isomer of glucose (Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase / phosphoglucose isomerase )

One mole of glucose is converted into two moles of ethanol and two moles of carbon dioxide: Glucose- C6H12O6 Ethanol- C2H5OH ConversionC12H22O11 +H2O + invertase 2 C6H12O6

Salman Khan CMRIMS bangalore

3/09/2011

Salman Khan CMRIMS bangalore

3/09/2011

STARCH TO ETHANOL (MAIZE) Disadvantages Maize:


large amounts of high quality land needed. displaces traditional commodity crops (Soy bean) Maize will be diverted from export markets raising prices on international market. (Japan, Mexico, Africa etc.) Maize will be diverted from feed market Engines must be modified; costly but feasible; fueling stations must be modified (feasible). Possible pressure to utilize virgin lands/ forest area.

3/09/2011

Salman Khan CMRIMS bangalore

WHAT IS BIODIESEL ?

Salman Khan CMRIMS bangalore

3/09/2011

Alternative fuel for diesel engines Made from vegetable oil or animal fat Lower emissions, High flash point (>300F), Safer Biodegradable, Essentially non-toxic. Chemically, biodiesel molecules are produced usually from triglyceride esters (transesterification) Pure Biodiesel (B100) or blended with petroleum diesel (B20, BXX). FA

FA
FA
Vegetable Oil

FA
Fatty Acid

Biodiesel
Alcohol Glycerin

CHEMISTRY OF TRIGLYCERIDES

Biodiesel is made from the combination of a triglyceride with a monohydroxy alcohol (i.e. methanol, ethanol). What is a triglyceride? Made from a combination of glycerol and three fatty acids:

3/09/2011

Salman Khan CMRIMS bangalore

Salman Khan CMRIMS bangalore

3/09/2011

SOURCE!?
Sources of biodiesel: Danti/ pratyanshrani (Jatropha curcas) Honge -Honge oil is extracted from the seeds of the Honge tree (Pongamiya pinnata). Canola (Brassica napus L.) High capital, broad scale production plan initiated Cost per liter projected at Rs. 27

Canola inflorescence

Salman Khan CMRIMS bangalore

3/09/2011

BIODIESEL, WHY?
Burning fossil fuels increases atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide Biodiesels Closed Carbon Fossil fuels are a Cycle finite resource

30% Increase

Graph taken from USF Oceanography webpage

JATROPHA

Salman Khan CMRIMS bangalore

3/09/2011

Biodiesel from Jatropha Seeds of the Jatropha nut is crushed and oil is extracted The oil is processed and refined to form bio-diesel.

Salman Khan CMRIMS bangalore

3/09/2011

Salman Khan CMRIMS bangalore

3/09/2011

Salman Khan CMRIMS bangalore

3/09/2011

RELATIVE GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS


B100 Electric Diesel Hybrid B20 Ethanol 85%
B100 = 100% Biodiesel B20 = 20% BD + 80% PD

Diesel
LPG CNG Gasoline
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160

Data from A Fresh Look at CNG: A Comparison of Alternative Fuels, Alternative Fuel Vehicle Program, 8/13/2001

Salman Khan CMRIMS bangalore

3/09/2011

BIODIESEL: PLANT OILS CONVERTED TO DIESEL Advantages

fossil energy ratio between 2 to 3. Greenhouse gas reduction 40 to 70% over conventional diesel per km. Soybean oil is cheap because it is a byproduct. Soybean meal is of higher market value. It is 11% oxygen by weight and contains no sulfur Biodiesel is safe to store, and has a high flash point Biodiesel Lowers toxic emissions and Particulate Matter (PM) Biodiesel has greater Cetane (50-56) and Lubricity

Disadvantages

Salman Khan CMRIMS bangalore

3/09/2011

Jatropha produces 1/6 as much fuel per acre as corn ethanol. Land consumption. In India maize is more profitable It gives out more nitrogen oxide emissions (Nitrogen oxide emissions from biodiesel blends could possibly be reduced by blending with kerosene) Transportation & storage at lower temperature areas. Soybean oil will be more expensive if soybean meal is in surplus. For farmer total value is important. Engine life decreases (Biodiesel has excellent solvent properties). Large investments in infrastructure may be needed in third world countries. Cold Weather Operation.

Salman Khan CMRIMS bangalore

3/09/2011

E-DIESEL

Uses additives (n-butanol, Butylated hydroxytoluene, Tetranitromethane) in order to allow blending of ethanol with diesel. Ethanol blends of 7.7% to 15% and up to 5% Additives that prevent the ethanol and diesel from separating at very low temperatures or if water contamination occurs.

THE ULTIMATE FUEL: LIGNOCELLULOSE TO ETHANOL. Advantages: high yields per acre. The most abundant plant product on earth. Estimated greenhouse gas reduction about 80 percent. Very large yield of biomass per acre. (example eshel tamarisk tree. 10-12 tons/acre/year vrs corn 3.5 tons/ acre) Different plant types for different soils, climates, can be developed and bred for higher yields. Can be grown on marginal land. Generally need little fertilizer.

Salman Khan CMRIMS bangalore

3/09/2011

Salman Khan CMRIMS bangalore

3/09/2011

Disadvantages Technology must be developed to economically convert cellulose into sugars and sugars to ethanol. Technology must be developed to modify feedstock so it is easier to convert.

Salman Khan CMRIMS bangalore

3/09/2011

REFERENCE
From Books:

Environmental biotechnology ,2002 Geetha B, Ramamurthi, Sullia, Ajij S & Satish K Environmental Chemistry. 2nd edition, 2005 (pg. 153- Fossil Fuels) G.S Sodhi Essential Environmental Studies. 1st edition, 2008 (pg. 159- Alternate Emerging Fuel)S.P Misra Environmental Biotechnology 1st edition, 2008 (pg. 246- Developing Biofuels from Biomass Energy)Rajiv K. Sinha & Rohit Sinha Environmental Management. 2nd edition, (pg. 111- Air Pollution and its Management) 2010 H.M Saxena Biotechnological Approaches for Ethanol Production 1st edition 2008, (pg.258, 267) Vijaya t & Dev D.V

Salman Khan CMRIMS bangalore

3/09/2011

REFERENCE
Articles

1. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC CHANNEL MAGAZINE-Green Dreams By Joel K. Bourne, Jr - 2009 edition


2. SCIENCE published online 12 August 2008 By Timothy Searchinger 3. International Journal of Applied Environmental Sciences (IJAES) Biofuels: Clarifying Assumptions 17 October 2008:

Salman Khan CMRIMS bangalore

3/09/2011

REFERENCE
Internet URL
http://www.reegle.info/?gclid=CIeEwZms26oCFcEa6wodTlZ28Q http://oneclick.indiatimes.com/article/0ea88Ka2kY4sD?q=Bangkok http://www.tatamotors.com/ http://www.bkkautos.com/feature/Gasohol-95 http://www.carsanook.com/read/events/15_sep_09/b84uqp/mitsubishi_motors_thailand_launches_all_new_mitsu.htm http://www.ehow.com/facts_5794183_diesel-fuel-volatility_.html http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/kinematic-viscosity-d_397.html http://www.iiasa.ac.at/~rains/PM/docs/documentation.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethanol_fermentation

Salman Khan CMRIMS bangalore

3/09/2011

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Starch http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sucrose http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fructose http://jb.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/114/2/743 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glucose-6-phosphate_isomerase http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yeast http://www.gizmag.com/yeast-ethanol-biofuel/17408/ http://www.carsanook.com/read/events/15_sep_09/b84uqp/mitsubishi_motors_thailand_launches_all_new_mitsu.htm http://www.ehow.com/facts_5794183_diesel-fuelvolatility_.html http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/kinematic-viscosityd_397.html

Salman Khan CMRIMS bangalore

3/09/2011

http://www.iiasa.ac.at/~rains/PM/docs/documentation.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethanol_fermentation http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Starch http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sucrose http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fructose http://jb.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/114/2/743 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glucose-6-phosphate_isomerase http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yeast http://www.gizmag.com/yeast-ethanol-biofuel/17408/ http://www.hpagriculture.com/maize_processing.htm http://www.bdpedia.com/biodiesel/alt/alt.html http://www.biodiesel.org/resources/fuelfactsheets/

Salman Khan CMRIMS bangalore

3/09/2011

Videos http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sHDYR2f5BMI http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TGAfHA44g3M http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X7uErZH1LC4 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oNhgdGdzelIo Leisure reading Gusher of Lies: The Dangerous Delusions of "Energy Independence (E-Book) By Robert Bryce

Salman Khan CMRIMS bangalore

3/09/2011

Image credit: www.tenaska.com/energy/biofuels.html http://bantrel.com/markets/renewableenergy.aspx http://www.mahalo.com/answers/write-a-your-vision-of-indian-by2020-what-needs-to-change-to-move-india-into-super-powereconomics-essay http://biofuel-tech.com/AboutBiofuels.aspx http://www.toonpool.com/cartoons/World%20Demand%20for%20 BioFuels_17700 http://www.biodieselprocessor.org/biodiesel%20process.jpg

Tables Referred http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emission_standard#India http://www.crophouse.co.nz/energy/fuels/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fuel_efficiency

Salman Khan CMRIMS bangalore

3/09/2011