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Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution Model


Watershed Hydrological Model

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) HEC-1 with WMS, SHE, TOPOG, TOPMODEL, ANSWERS and AGNPS

II. Objectives
Predicting Volume of Surface Runoff and Surface Soil Erosion Predicting Rate of Sedimentation due to Surface Soil Erosion Predicting Erosion of nutrient element

III. Tools Matters


Computer and Printer Software of AGNPS ( Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution Model ) Topography Map for Research Area Soil Map for Research Area Land Use/Land Cover Map for Research Area Pen, Ruler, Calculator, etc

IV. Theory

Model is representation of states , objects and events . The representations have to be expressed in the simple form (eliminate or minimize indirect and complex variables). AGNPS Model constitutes a combination of distributed and sequential model. In the distributed model, the mass equilibrium of all cells is processed simultaneously; while in the sequential model, pollutant will be routed in the surface run-off and river channel

AGNPS Model is one of Hydrologic Models developed by USDA-ARS, USDA-SCS, MPCA, LCMR and EPA. This model has been used by many countries such as America, Canada and the European Union countries (Yoon, 1996 in Nugroho, 2000)

AGNPS consists a number of cells and each cell could accommodate 22 parameters Thus, data format from AGNPS Model is in the form of raster or cells. The area of cell depends on size of the watershed area; the area of cell should be < 10 acre if area of watershed is equal or less than 2000 acre, and it should be 40 acre or larger if size of watershed is > 2000 acre.

Volume of Surface Runoff can be predicted with Curve Number from the SCS

( P 0.2S ) Q= ( P + 0.8S )

1000 S= 10 CN

Peak Discharge The first method is used if the river channel is triangular form:

Qp = 8.48 A CS


( RO

0.82 A0.07

) LW


The second method used if the the river channel is rectangular form:
Qp = 10
log [ C0 +C1 (log Tc ) +C2 (log Tc ) ].2

A Q 640

Surface erosion is loss of materials of soil surface due to surface runoff.

SL = ( EI ) KLSCP ( SSF )

V. The AGNPS Model Procedure

5.1. Preparing Data

Collecting the Thematic Maps (Topography, Soil, Land Use/Land Cover) * Correcting the system of map projection 1. UTM 2. Latitude/Longitude * Matching the Thematic Map Scale 1. Fraction: (ex. 1:50,000; 1:100,000) 2. Bar Scale

Delineating the watershed boundary

* Making the river network based on Topographic Map * * Plotting the location of hydrometric station * Making the boundary of watershed * Overlay The Watershed Map with The Soil and

Making the grid on Thematic Map * Making the grid on all thematic map of research area * Giving the number of grid on all thematic map

Soil Map

Land Use Map

Topography Map

Identifying the data on each grid

1. Cell Number 2. Receiving Cell Number 3. Cell Division 4. Receiving Cell Division 5. Aspect of Runoff Drainage 6. SCS Curve Number 7. Land Slope 8. Slope Shape Factor 9. Field Slope Length 10. Mannings Roughness Coefficient 11. Soil Credibility Factor (K)

12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.

Cropping Factor (C) Practice Factor (P) Surface Condition Constant Soil Texture Fertilization Level Availability Factor Point Source Indicator Gully Source Level COD Factor Impoundment Factor Channel Indicator

The Sort Description of AGNPS Parameter

1. Cell Number Each cell in the watershed has to be identified by a number. The cells are numbered consecutively, beginning at the cell in the northwest corner, and sweeping 1 2 from west to east, north to south.
3 4 5

2. Cell Division The base cell can be divided into 4 sub cells and in this program the name of sub cell is the cell division.
3 210
3 221 3 222 3 223 3 224

3 100
3 230 3 240

3 310

3 320

3 400
3 330 3 340

3. Receiving cell number:

Represent the drainage direction and it is determined by cell topography. The receiving cell number for the watershed outlet must be a number greater than the total number of cells in the watershed. The receiving cell number of cell-1 is cell-2 because Cell-2 receives water from cell-1
4 5

The receiving cell number of cell-4 is cell-5 The greatest number is 5

4. Receiving Cell Division: The division indicator for the receiving cell is an integer which specifies which division of the receiving cell is the cell which is actually drained into. Each division of a cell is one quarter of the area of its base cell. The numbering scheme is as follows: The receiving cell division of sub cell-100 is sub cell-200 The receiving cell division of sub cell-200 is cell-2
4 5

100 300

200 400 3

5. Aspect A single digit indicates the principal direction of drainage from the cell. This can be one of eight possible directions, 1 being north and proceeding clockwise, 8 being northwest. If there is no drainage from the cell, input a 0.

6. SCS curve number: The runoff curve number or hydrologic soilcover complex number used in the Soil Conservation Service equation for estimating direct runoff from the storm rainfall. (see D:\CAMBODIA\Paper AGNPS \Curve Number.Doc)

7. Land slope The primary slope, in percent, of the cell. This can be obtained from topographic maps, existing data or actual measurements. Assume an average slope if the cell is irregular. If the cell is predominantly water or marsh, enter a value of 0.

8. Slope shape factor An identification number used to indicate the dominant slope shape of the cell. One, a uniform slope; two, a convex slope; and three, a concave slope.

9. Field slope length Field slope length can be found by using the topographic map or the result of field survey. If the cell is predominantly water or marsh, enter a value of 0.

10. Manning's roughness coefficient A roughness coefficient can be found by using Mannings Table. Example: To Natural streams Clean and straight, no rifts or deep pools 0.030 Clean and winding, some pools and shoals 0.040 Clean and winding, some weeds, stones and pools 0.048 Sluggish reaches with weeds and deep pools 0.070

11. Soil erodibility factor The soil erodibility factor is the parameter used in the universal soil loss equation (K), obtained from Soil Conservation Service soils data. If the cell is predominantly water or marsh, enter a value of 0. 12. Cropping factor The Cropping factor (c factor) used in the universal soil loss equation (see Wischmeier and Smith, 1978). 13. Practice factor The parameter used in the universal soil loss equation (p). To examine a worst case situation, assume a practice factor of 1.0. Other values for various conservation practices can be found in USDA Agricultural Handbook 537.

14. Surface condition constant A value based on land use at the time of the storm to make adjustments for the time it takes overland runoff to channelize. Values are shown in the following table. 15. Soil texture The major soil texture classification for the cell. The major soil texture can be determined from the texture triangle.

16. Fertilization level A single digit indication of the level of fertilization on the field. The number to be input and the levels are: Assumed fertilization (lb/a): Level N P Input -------------------------------------------------------------- No fertilization 0 0 0 Low fertilization 50 20 1 Average fertilization 100 40 2 High fertilization 200 80 3 User Defined Level Input Input 4

17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.

Availability factor Point source indicator Gully source level Chemical oxygen demand factor Impoundment factor Channel Indicator