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Material Effects of Industrialization
Material Effects of Industrialization
Material Effects of Industrialization

Material Effects of Industrialization

Material Effects of Industrialization
Material Effects of Industrialization

The Factory System

Putting out System is inefficient

Machines are large and expensive

Entrepreneurs are needed

More specialization of tasks

Production becomes more efficient, scheduled and

disciplined

Example: Josiah Wedgewood

The Factory System • Putting out System is inefficient • Machines are large and expensive •
The Factory System • Putting out System is inefficient • Machines are large and expensive •

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Working Conditions

Workers are reduced to wage earners (free labor).

Skilled artisans become obsolete. Seasons are replaced by hours Luddites protest early machines/factories.

Working Conditions • Workers are reduced to wage earners (free labor). • Skilled artisans become obsolete.

Sabot = sabotage

Early SPREAD of Industrialization

Great Britain

Forbid the export of machinery, techniques or workers

Samuel Slater smuggled himself to America in 1789 and built textile machinery from memory of his apprenticeship.

Early SPREAD of Industrialization • Great Britain – Forbid the export of machinery, techniques or workers

Continental Europe & North America

Kidnapped, bribed and smuggled workers and information

Got drunks and other second rate specialists

Early SPREAD of Industrialization

Belgium

Second to industrialize Made glass and weapons

France

Early SPREAD of Industrialization • • • • Belgium – Second to industrialize – Made glass

Revolution slowed industrialization Napoleon helped by abolishing internal trade barriers and guilds Specialized in textiles, metallurgy and railroads

Germany

Bismarck favored heavy industry Huge conglomerate businesses like Krupp form

United States

Both capital and specialists come from Europe Specialize in iron, textiles (cotton), steamships and railroads

Early SPREAD of Industrialization • • • • Belgium – Second to industrialize – Made glass

Industrial Capitalism

Mass Production

Standardization causes falling prices

Interchangeable parts: Eli Whitney (guns)

• Subdivision of Labor: Henry Ford’s conveyor

system (a car every 90 minutes)

Industrial Capitalism • Mass Production – Standardization causes falling prices • Interchangeable parts: Eli Whitney (guns)

Big Business

Joint Stock Companies Corporation

Many investors with limited liability Banks grow to meet demand

Monopolies: Unregulated Capitalism

Designed to limit or eliminate competition

Trusts:

Vertical Monopoly: controls all aspects of production, like Standard Oil that owned the oil from the well to the pump.

Horizontal Monopoly: controls one aspect of production so all companies that deal with that aspect must pay their price, like DeBeers Diamonds

Monopolies: Unregulated Capitalism Designed to limit or eliminate competition • Trusts: – Vertical Monopoly: controls all

Cartels:

Companies that work together to fix prices

Industrial Society

Benefits:

Inexpensive goods (washing machines, cars, clothing- underwear)

Rising standard of living (food prices drop)

Population growth (1000% in N. America)

Industrial Society • Benefits: – Inexpensive goods (washing machines, cars, clothing- underwear ) – Rising standard

Industrial Society

Demographic Transition

Shifting patterns of fertility and mortality

Fertility drops

Birth control Cost of raising children is high More children survive to adulthood

Population growth slows

Demographic stability is achieved (birth nearly the same as deaths)

Industrial Society

Urbanization

Industrial Society • Urbanization – Industrial nations become predominantly urban – Sewers improve sanitation • Less

Industrial nations become predominantly urban

Sewers improve sanitation

Less disease like TB, cholera and typhus in areas with sewers

Industrial Society • Urbanization – Industrial nations become predominantly urban – Sewers improve sanitation • Less

Parks Pollution Police

Industrial Society

Migration

Millions to North and South America

Different reasons for migration

Political (Germans) Economic (Irish)

Social (Jews, Catholic British)

Italians returned to Italy in large numbers

Over 90% of Chinese return to China

Industrial Society • Migration – Millions to North and South America – Different reasons for migration
Industrial Society • Migration – Millions to North and South America – Different reasons for migration

New Social Classes

Slavery ends

Slaves could not afford goods being produced, wage laborers spent money on goods they made

Middle Class

Became larger and more economically and politically powerful than privileged class

Demands police forces Working Class

• Demands political influence, takes “Holy Mondays” attends fights and baseball

Industrial Society

Industrial Society • Family – Men • Gained status as wages increased • Enjoyed reading books

Family

Men

Industrial Society • Family – Men • Gained status as wages increased • Enjoyed reading books

Gained status as wages increased Enjoyed reading books for leisure

Women

Worked less at home Middle class women show class by not working Middle class demand servants Careers limited to semi-professionals, give up work when married

Industrial Society • Family – Men • Gained status as wages increased • Enjoyed reading books

Children

Must work to survive Sensational abuse • 1840’s Parliamentary laws begin to address abuse

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