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Brain Chips

Providing hope for the paralyzed

Thousands of people around the world suffer from paralysis, rendering them dependent on others to perform even the most basic tasks. But that could change, thanks to the latest achievements in the most basic tasks. But that could change., thanks to latest achievements in the Brain-Computer interface which cold help them regain a portion of their lost independence.

Matthew Nagle is a25 year-old man, ,paralyzed from the neck down. But he moved a prosthetic limb using this thoughts. And that snot all, he also checked his e-mail, turned the TV on and off, and played a computer game, again, ,purely by the power of his thoughts.

The Brain-Computer Interface

The term Brain-Computer Interface refers to the direct interaction between a healthy brain and a computer. Examples:

1.Monkeys can control a computer with electrodes implanted in

their brain.

2.In 2005 , four people , two of them partly-paralyzed wheelchair

users, were able to move a computer cursor while wearing a cap with 64 electrodes, wired to pick up brain waves.

How it works ?
Usually, the brain is connected to an external computer system through a chip composed of electrodes. Now , it is possible to implant this chip into the brains motor cortex (the part of the brain that controls the movements of the limbs). For storing thoughts it use the signal processing algorithms.

The basic elements of Brain Gate

I. The chip
II. The connector

III. The converter

IV. The computer

The basic elements of Brain Gate

Scenario Matthew Nagles (He is the first paralyzed person to have operated a prosthetic arm sing just his mind)

Donoghes team implanted a small chip into Nagles brain. It consisted of nearly 100 hairwidth electrodes implanted a millimeter deep into the part of the motor cortex of his brain that controls movement.

Just like a cell phone

Scenario: Nagles spinal cord was damaged. They bypassed the spinal cord altogether and extracting the brains commands, converted into electrical signals and sent them to a computer.

Teething troubles
Reading brain signals is not an easy task as even a single movement such as raising a hand, requires electrical signals from many regions of the brain. 1.Size 2.Calibration

3.Muscle connection

Other key players

Notable though his efforts are, Donoghue is not the only person involved in this field. The following efforts can be considered as turning points in the history on BCI:

1 in 1996, Emory University scientists

2 in 2000, Miguel Nicolelis of Duke University scientists 3 in 2004, University of Pittsburgh scientist

The future beckons

Normal humans may also be able to utilize brain chip technology to enhance their relationship with the digital world provided they are willing to receive the implant

Donoghues words
in theory you should be able to reconstruct everything thats going on in your head and see your dreams and know your thoughts.
Professor Donoghe.

Its hope!
I n an interview wit the magazine Discover, he had said, Brain Chip technology does not promise miracles it does not, for instance, say tat a paralyzed man will one day walk using an artificial leg by his thoughts alone. And also he replied: I dont know that its false. Its hope.

Its a great news for all of us, especially for those who have been resigned to spending their lives in wheelchairs. Lets we also hope that this BCI is became true and help for paralyzed people.

Query time ?

Thanks to all..

Under the guidance of

Mr.P.R. Murali Krishna