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Drang nach Osten

War as a stimulus?
For it was their victory over the Carthaginians in this war, and their conviction that thereby the most difficult and most essential step towards universal empire had been taken, which encouraged the Romans for the first time to stretch out their hands upon the rest, and to cross with an army into Greece and Asia. Polybius 1.3

The Hellenistic World

Macedonian Entanglements
Philip V of Macedon 1st Macedonian War 214-205 - desultory 2nd Macedonian War 200-197 BC - starts as an eastern power struggle Rome responds to Rhodes and Pergamum

The End
Battle of Cynoscephalae 197 BC 196 BC Flaminius proclaims the Freeedom of Greece at the Isthmian Games near Corinth No attempt made to annex Macedon

Polybius on the Phalanx

If the phalanx has its proper formation and strength, nothing can resist it face to face or withstand its charge... so what brings disaster on those who employ it? War is full of uncertainties both as to time and place and there is only one time and one kind of ground on which a phalanx can fully work... if it leaves its proper ground...it will be easy prey to the enemy. Polybius 18.30-31

Polybius on the Roman Army

The Roman order on the other hand is flexible: for every Roman, once armed and on the field, is equally well equipped for every place, time, or appearance of the enemy. He is, moreover, quite ready and needs to make no change, whether he is required to fight in the main body, or in a detachment, or in a single maniple, or even by himself. Therefore, as the individual members of the Roman force are so much more serviceable, their plans are also much more often attended by success than those of others. Polybius, 18.32

Drive West
Rome doesnt leave Spain after defeat of Carthage
Declares 2 provinces there in 197 BC By 146 BC has reached central Spain

War with Antiochus the Great

192-188 BC Antiochus III invades Sparta to liberate it Philip V doesnt support him He rejects Hannibals idea of a second front Heavily defeated at Thermopylae in 191 BC & at Magnesia in 190 BC

Treaty of Apamea
Antiochus forced to give up all his territory in Asia Minor
Not annexed, but either freed or given to Pergamum or Rhodes

Macedon again
3rd Macedonian War 171-168 BC King Perseus attempts to re-assert Macedonian power Starts well, but defeated at Pydna in 168 BC Macedon split up into 4 republics

Polybiuss verdict
almost the whole inhabited world was conquered and brought under the dominion of the single city of Rome, and that too within a period of not quite fifty-three years... they left behind them an empire not to be paralleled in the past or rivalled in the future. Polybius 1.1-2 219-167 B. C.

146: A new start

Continuous bickering in Greece 146 - Macedonia becomes a Roman province Corinth sacked Creation of province of Achaea

3rd Punic War 149-146

Elder Cato - Et ceterum censeo Carthaginem esse delendam Carthage attacks a neighbour, Numidia, under extreme provocation Rome attacks & besieges town ineptly for over 2 yrs Carthage finally captured & destroyed

Creation of Roman province of Africa

Why did it happen?

Why did Rome expand like this?
And why didnt it happen straightaway? Is there a difference between East and West?

Rome always wanted world domination A search for markets and raw materials Forced into war by others A product of individuals rather than the state

These need not be exclusive of one another

Hobsons choice?
Search for markets often wrongly ascribed to Lenin
Anachronistic in this period? Were Roman rulers involved in trade?
John Hobson

A fit of absent mindedness?

We English seem, as it were, to have conquered and peopled half the world in a fit of absence of mind. Defensive Imperialism? Rome feels threatened & gets her revenge in first Fetial Law Frustration?
Sir John Seeley

Peripheral Imperialism
Personal ambition search for a triumph (and cash) Senate left with faits accomplis A brake as well as a stimulus for expansion?

Cecil Rhodes

Aristotle and the Wild West

No cultural baggage here
Lack of urbanisation

means people seen as sub-human?

Man is by his nature a political animal, Pol. 1253a1-3

tensions and instability in aristocracy rise and fall of Scipio Africanus Ingrata patria, ne ossa quidem habebis exponential increase in wealth Battle over sumptuary laws repeal of Lex Oppia in 195 BC Elder Catos Origines vir bonus peritus dicendi

Intellectual crisis?
Exposure to new ideas - philosophers embassy in 155BC 154 BC expulsion of 2 Epicurean philosophers because they had introduced the younger generation to many unnatural pleasures - Aelian, Varia Historiae 9.12