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Submitted by: Manpreet Singh Kler 08107026 4th Year,Mechanical



Fuel injection is a system for mixing fuel with air in an Internal Combustion Engine. It has become the primary fuel delivery system used in gasoline automotive engines, having almost completely replaced carburetors in the late 1990s. With the advent of electronic fuel injection (EFI), the diesel and gasoline hardware has become similar.

The primary difference between carburetors and fuel injection is that fuel injection atomizes the fuel by forcibly pumping it through a small nozzle under high pressure, while a carburetor relies on low pressure created by intake air rushing through it to add the fuel to the airstream. One of the first commercial fuel injection systems was a mechanical system developed by Bosch and introduced in 1955 on the Mercedes-Benz 300SL.


The fuel injector is only a nozzle and a valve: the power to inject the fuel comes from a pump or a pressure container farther back in the fuel supply and all this is controlled using ECM. The functional objectives for fuel injection systems can vary. All share the central task of supplying fuel to the combustion process, but it is a design decision how a particular system will be optimized.



Multi-point fuel injection:

Multi-point fuel injection injects fuel into the intake port just upstream of the cylinder's intake valve, rather than at a central point within an intake manifold.


No need to crank the engine twice or thrice in case of cold starting as happens in the carburettor system. Immediate response, in case of sudden acceleration / deceleration. Since the engine is controlled by ECM* (Engine Control Module), more accurate amount of A/F mixture will be supplied and as a result complete combustion will take place. This leads to effective utilization of fuel supplied and hence low emission level. The mileage of the vehicle will be improved.

Direct Injection System(TDI):

The engine uses direct injection where a fuel injector sprays atomized fuel directly into the main combustion chamber of each cylinder, rather than the pre-combustion chamber prevalent in older diesels which used indirect injection. The engine is coupled with a turbocharger to increase the amount of air going into the engine cylinders, and an intercooler to lower the temperature (and therefore increase the density) of the air from the turbo, thereby increasing the amount of fuel that can be injected and combusted.


These, in combination, allow for greater engine performance. It also decreases emissions. Provides more torque than its petrol engined counterpart. The reduced material volume of the direct injection diesel engine reduces heat losses.

A direct injection engine is also easier to start when cold, due to more efficient placing and usage of glowplugs.

Thereby increases engine efficiency, at the expense of increased combustion noise.


Fuel ignition is one of the important feature in an engine operating system. The operation and efficiency of an internal combustion (IC) engine is strongly linked to its ignition timing. It is mainly done by the usage of spark plugs in case of petrol engine ,while in case of a diesel engine the charge is compressed and ignited.


Digital Twin Spark Plug Ignition (DTS-i):

DTS-i was first introduced in the Pulsar 150/180 models in 2003. DTS-i stands for Digital Twin Spark Plug Ignition. In simple words it means that there are 2 spark plugs in the single cylinder engine and the timing of sparkplugs are controlled by a digital microprocessor.


The big difference between a conventional 4 stroke engines and the DTS-i engine is the incorporation of 2 Spark Plugs. The 2 spark plug set up leads to better burning of the air fuel mixture, which results in delivering better fuel efficiency without any compromise in power. With a DTS-i engine, one gets the dual benefit of good fuel coupled with good power as well.

Digital Twin Spark Swirl Induction (DTS-Si):

Like the DTS-i engine, the DTS-Si engine also has 2 Spark Plugs, the timing of which is controlled by a Digital Microprocessor. The difference between these two engines is the offset position of the inlet and outlet ports of the DTS-Si engine.

Effect of DTS-Si
This offset position creates turbulence of the air-fuel mixture inside the engine.

Benefits of DTS-Si Technology: This enhances the fuel efficiency of the engine even further.