Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 33

NUR AFRAH BT MUHAMAD SHUKRI (0917384) SITI NOR HASHIMAH BT HASHIM (0915462) AZLINA BT ZAKARIA (0915944) SITI KHAIRUNA BT SAPUAN (0839462) NURUL AINI HAYAT BT HASHIM (0919058)

CONTENT

DEFINITION .

description eth·nog·ra·phy (noun)-a branch of anthropology dealing with the scientific description of individual cultures. Literally: writing about groups of people the research process of learning from people about their culture ” -Ventres and Richard Frankel Ethnography is a systematic study of a particular cultural group or phenomenon”-Frances Julia Riemer . grafia=writing. race.etnos=people.

analyzing. the methodology and results of studying ethnography. and interpreting a culture. .sharing group’s shared patterns of behavior.ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH qualitative research procedures for describing. beliefs. and language that develop over time.

Nonjudgmental orientation Number checking Culture ETHNOGRAPHIC CONCEPTS Thick description Holistic perspective “Emic” perspective Contextualization .

O Disadvantages – takes too much time.” it is impossible to make an absolute generalization when one is just studying a sample. there maybe defects in the validity of the conclusions. hard to digest “thick data. .ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES O Advantages – actual behavior is revealed. the bias of the researcher remains. expensive.

THE KEY CHARACTERISTICS OF AN ETHNOGRAPHIC DESIGN .

CULTURAL THEMES FIELDWORK QUALITATIVE RESEARCH SHARED PATTERNS A CULTURE – SHARING GROUP .

They are interested in adding to the knowledge about culture and studying specific cultural themes that is openly approved or promoted in a society or group.CULTURAL THEMES The researcher study about cultural themes. . QUALITATIVE RESEARCH A CULTURE-SHARING GROUP Refer to two or more individuals who have shared behaviors. beliefs and language.

work. Firstly. the group shares any one or a combination of behaviors. or play. beliefs and language. The ethnographers collect data through spending time at participants’ site where they live. the culture-sharing group needs to have adopted shared patterns that the ethnographer can discern. beliefs. . Secondly. and language that the culture –sharing group adopts over time.SHARED PATTERNS OF: Behavior. FIELDWORK The researcher gather data in the setting where the participants are located and where their shared patterns can be studied.

The Procedure of Ethnographic Research .

provide a focus for the study. Identification of the Phenomenon to be Studied O Ex:The social problem of students in a desegregated urban high school O identifies the phenomenon to be studied as social interaction of high school students. O Called-foreshadowed problems.1). . specifically in a desegregated school.

Hypotheses Generation O hypotheses has been generated in a continuous process throughout the study. Identification of Subjects O to identify primary subjects for the study and whose interaction must be considered. . 3).2).

4). Data Collection  Primary method is. O data collection involves participantobservation.observation. O researcher can have observation in three different ways: o Active participant (assume role of participant) o Privileged observer (does not assume role of participant but has access to the relevant activity for the study) o Limited observer (used when opportunities for observation are restricted or absent)—least desirable .

etc.O Other forms of data collection in ethnography include:  Interviews  Surveys  Written resources  Non-written resources (videotapes.) .photographs.

6). Preparing Field Notes O It is important to record whatever has been observed or interviewed by the researcher. shorthand or in diagrammatic fashion. Reviewing other Sources O These other sources can be in form of: O Achievement tests O Attitude inventories O Psychological tests O Interest inventories O Incidence of specific behaviours (discipline records) . O can be written in narrative.5).

. but its basic feature will be the combination of two or more different research strategies in the study of same empirical units. O the triangulation process assesses the sufficiency of the data. Triangulation O the process of Qualitative Cross-Validation O As Denzin (1978) points out: Triangulation can take many form.7).

O Example: Triangulation Involving Multiple Data Sources in Social Interaction Counselors Faculty Students .

even when statistics are used. Analysis and Interpretation O Analysis.8). interviews.explaining descriptive pattern .consists of synthesizing the information from the observations. they tend to be used in a descriptive rather than an inferential manner. O Interpretation. O The analysis in ethnographic relies heavily on description. and other data sources.

and what particular events or activities in the setting were like. O written in narrative form to provide a holistic picture of what has happened in the activity or event. Description O The purpose.to let the reader know what happened in the environment under observation. .9). what it was like from the participants’ point of view to be in the setting.

10). This is partly because of the successive approximation procedure of coming to conclusions when conducting ethnographic research. Drawing Conclusions O integrated much more with the other parts of the research process. .

SECOND LANGUAGE AND LITERACY LEARNING IN SCHOOL AND AT HOME: AN ETHNOGRAPHIC STUDY OF CHINESE CANADIAN FIRST GRADERS’ EXPERIENCES By: GUOFANG LI MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY ARTICLE REVIEW .

Canada WHY WHERE WHEN October 2000 and June 2001 HOW • Direct observation. British Columbia. beliefs. participant observation • Interviews • Document collection . resources. Riverview.WHAT Does Chinese Canadian First grader experienced difficulty in learning second language and literacy in school and at home? WHO Two focal Chinese Canadian first grader. Sandy Chung and Alana Tang. • To examine the students’ reading and writing practices in school and at home • To understand the thoughts. and concern of these children when they are socialized into sociocultural discourses Taylor Elementary (K-7).

Identification of the Phenomenon to be Studied The experiences of Chinese Canadian First Grader in learning second language and literacy in school and at home 2). Hypotheses Generation . British Columbia. Riverview. Canada 3). Identification of Subjects Two focal Chinese Canadian first grader.PROCEDURES 1). Sandy Chung and Alana Tang from Taylor Elementary (K-7).

4). Reviewing Other Sources Sample of their reading records . participant observation (classroom activities). Preparing Field Notes Recorded the interview and wrote the observation 6). interviews (teachers and parents) and document collection (sample of their written work. Data Collection Direct observation (participants). audiotaped interview) 5).

Ass.Student’s home and school literacy experiences . and student’s perspectives on literacy . Wong) . Analysis and Interpretation Developed major domains such as: .Parents 8).Teacher (Mrs Haines) . Triangulation Multiple data sources: .Cross-cultural differences .Student’s interaction with peer . teacher’s.Parent’s.7).Teacher’s and parent’s perceptions of student .Sandy and Alana . Teacher (Mrs.

Description .9).

DISCUSSION O Web has become similar stage as television as an important mass medium long time ago O A range of age group.it would be useful to concentrate on one group O The issue of search engines also deserve further exploration O Many language issues associated with the web .

PEKAN. PAHANG. .HOW TO IMPLEMENT ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH IN ISLAMIC EDUCATION?? AN ETHNOGRAPHIC STUDY OF ISLAMIC KNOWLEDGE AMONG ABORIGINAL STUDENTS IN KAMPUNG TASIK GUMUM.

CONCLUSION .