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Shelter Family life Access to community facilities Family participation in community life Economic stability


Provides physical protection and shelter Provides adequately for cooking, eating, washing and excretory functions Is designed, constructed, maintained and used in a manner such as to prevent the spread of communicable diseases Provides for protection from hazards of exposure to noise and pollution Is free from unsafe physical arrangements due to construction or maintenance and from toxic or harmful materials Encourages personal and community development, promotes social relationships, reflects a regard for ecologic principles and by these means promotes mental health

SITE Elevated, free from floods, access to wide street Away from mosquito and fly breeding Away from nuisances of dust, smoke, smell, noise and traffic Pleasing surroundings Soil should be dry and safe for foundation and well drained Sub soil water should be below 20 feet SET BACK Open space all round the house - setback Rural areas - built up area is 1/3 Urban area - built up area 2/3 There is no obstruction to lighting and ventilation

FLOOR Pucca, impermeable, can be easily washable, kept clean and dry Mud floors break up and can cause dust, not recommended Smooth, free from cracks, prevent dust and breeding of insects Damp proof, height of the plinth 2-3 feet WALLS Reasonably strong Low heat capacity Weather resistant Unsuitable for rats and vermin Not easily damaged Smooth, 9 inch brick wall, plastered smooth, colored cream or white ROOF Height should not be less than 10 feet in the absence of air conditioning Low heat transmittance coefficient

ROOMS Not less than 2, at least 1 can be closed for security Other may be opened on one side, if it is a courtyard Recommended floor space must be available depending on no. of persons FLOOR AREA At least 100 sq feet for 1 person At least 120 sq. feet for more than 1 person Should not be less than 50 sq feet per person Cubic space should be at least 500 cu. feet per person, preferably 1000 cu. feet per capita WINDOWS Two windows per room with at least 1 opens directly into an open space Placed at a height not more than 3 feet 1/5 of the floor area Doors and Windows, 2/5 of the floor area

KITCHEN Separate kitchen, protected against dust and smoke, adequately lighted Provided with arrangements for storing food, fuel, provisions, water supply, sink for washing and proper drainage Floor should be impervious Lighting - daylight factor should exceed 1% over 1/2 the floor area Privy- a sanitary privy is a must, belong exclusively and readily accessible, in developed areas equipped with water carriage systems Garbage and refuse- removed daily, disposed in a sanitary way Bathing and washing- privacy and exclusively belonging to it

At least 2 living rooms Ample verandah space Built up space 1/3 of the total area Separate kitchen Paved kitchen and platform Sanitary latrine Window 10% of floor Sanitary well or tube well within a quarter of a mile from the house Cattle sheds 25 feet away, area 8x4 feet per cattle, open all sides Arrangements for disposal of waste water, refuse and garbage


Respiratory infections- Cold , TB, influenza, diphtheria, bronchitis, measles, whooping cough Skin infections- Scabies, ring worm, impetigo, leprosy Rat infestation- Plague Arthropods- houseflies , mosquitoes, fleas and bugs AccidentsMorbidity and mortality Psychosocial effects- isolation in upper floors, densely populated urban areas

Persons per room Floor space

1 room 2 rooms 3 rooms 4 rooms 5 or more rooms

2 persons 3 persons 5 persons 7 persons 10 persons

110 sq feet or 2 persons more 90-100 sq feet 1 and 1/2 persons 70-90 sq feet 50-70 sq feet < 50 sq feet 1 person 1/2 person nil

Additional 2 for each further room

A baby under 12 months not counted, 1-10 yrs counted as 1/2

Sex separation- Overcrowding is present if 2 persons over 9 years of age, not husband and wife, of opposite sex are obliged to sleep in same room.

PHYSICAL- based on floor space, cubic space, room height, persons per room, rooms per dwelling, environmental quality (eg. air, light, water, noise, sewage disposal etc) ECONOMIC- cost of the building, rental levels, taxes, expenditure on housing SOCIAL - related to prevention of illness - frequency of illness due to inadequate sewage and garbage collection, illness associated with contaminated water source, illness due to insect born diseases, overcrowding, accidents, proximity to animals, access to medical facility COMFORT- Thermal comfort , Accoustic comfort ,Visual comfort ,Spatial comfort MENTAL HEALTH - frequency of suicides in the neighborhood, neglected and abandoned youth in the neighborhood, drug abuse in the neighborhood

PUBLIC POLICY House site and construction assistance - Under Minimum needs programme -sites and assistance loans, subsidy for construction Indira Awas Yogana (IAY) - Rural Landless Employment Guarentee Programme. Houses have 1 room, 1 kitchen, attached with latrine, bathroom, smokeless chullah.