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Results from the Mid Atlantic High Frequency Radar Network

Belgium

Mid-Atlantic Bight

Hugh Roarty, Scott Glenn, Josh Kohut, Erick Rivera, Laura Palamara, Ethan Handel, Mike Smith - Rutgers University

Outline for Talk


1. Introduction to Rutgers University and Coastal Ocean Observation Laboratory 2. Background and Theory of High Frequency Radar 3. Science results and Applications of High Frequency Radar Data

Rutgers - A Long and Rich History


Founded in 1766, 10 years before the United States became a nation Eighth oldest university in America More than 56,000 students from all 50 states and 125 countries 4,150 full- and part-time faculty members

New Jersey

vs
70 km

Belgium

190 km

19,443 km2 8,791,894

Land Area Population

30,278 km2 10,431,477

Rutgers University - Coastal Ocean Observation Lab


MARACOOS Operations Center

Vessels Satellite
Satellite Ships/ Vessels CODAR Glider

REMUS Modeling Leadership

Data Vis. Security Education

CODAR Network

L-Band & X-Band Satellite Receivers

Glider Fleet

3-D Nowcasts & Forecasts

International Constellation of Satellites Since 1992


Sea Surface Temperature - SST
L-Band (installed 1992) X-Band (installed 2003)

Corporate Partner: SeaSpace

Ocean Color
<River Plumes Ocean Blooms>

Combined SST & Color Water Mass Boundaries

High Frequency Radar Since 1996


14 7 14 35 Long-Range Medium-Range Short-Range Total CODARs

Corporate Partner: CODAR Ocean Sensors

Nested Grids of Hourly Surface Current Maps ^ Combined CODAR & Satellite Products >

Autonomous Underwater Gliders Since 1998


Satellite Ocean Color

Satellite SST

Subsurface Glider Data

Corporate Partner: Teledyne Webb Research

< Glider Fleet

With Global Reach >

Composite Data & Forecast Products

+
Remote Sensing Gliders
Hudson River

=
3-D Nowcasts

E TT La

MVCO/CBLAST

+
3-D Nowcasts

Delaware

06 SW

ES

e Pr

O SS

/M

CO AR

AB

oM

t at (H

as er

Nested Ocean Models

s nk M Ba CO nd Hy ra n G thi NA to wi r) NE uba ted ato C es erc (n r M o

to

lif Ha

) ax

=
4-D Forecasts

Nested Models

HIGH FREQUENCY RADAR BACKGROUND

Components of a High Frequency (HF) RADAR system


Computer and Monitor Transmitter Receiver

Transmit Antenna

receive antenna
loop box (A1 & A2) monopole (A3)

Receive Antenna

radial whips

electronics loop box


Frequency Dependent Range, Resolution & Vessel Size

loop 1 (A1)

loop 2 (A2)
1 1

13 MHz Tx/Rx Antenna


Single antenna at 13 MHz Transmit and Receive Radial whips no longer needed Possible to install with no guy wires and small base

Fre q

60 23 12 7

/2
30.0 11.5 6.0 3.6

T
4.4 2.7 2.0 1.5

meters meters seconds

Bragg Sea Echo

mhz

5 13 25 42

/2

/2

SeaSonde Principles

Fre q

60 23 12 7

/2
30.0 11.5 6.0 3.6

T
4.4 2.7 2.0 1.5

meters meters seconds

Bragg Sea Echo

mhz

5 13 25 42

/2

/2

SeaSonde Principles

Fre q

60 23 12 7

/2
30.0 11.5 6.0 3.6

T
4.4 2.7 2.0 1.5

meters meters seconds

Bragg Sea Echo

mhz

5 13 25 42

/2

/2

SeaSonde Principles

Fre q

60 23 12 7

/2
30.0 11.5 6.0 3.6

T
4.4 2.7 2.0 1.5

meters meters seconds

Bragg Sea Echo

mhz

5 13 25 42

/2

/2

SeaSonde Principles

Fre q

60 23 12 7

/2
30.0 11.5 6.0 3.6

T
4.4 2.7 2.0 1.5

meters meters seconds

Bragg Sea Echo

mhz

5 13 25 42

/2

/2

SeaSonde Principles

Fre q

60 23 12 7

/2
30.0 11.5 6.0 3.6

T
4.4 2.7 2.0 1.5

meters meters seconds

Bragg Sea Echo

mhz

5 13 25 42

/2

/2

SeaSonde Principles

Fre q

60 23 12 7

/2
30.0 11.5 6.0 3.6

T
4.4 2.7 2.0 1.5

meters meters seconds

Bragg Sea Echo

mhz

5 13 25 42

/2

/2

SeaSonde Principles

Fre q

60 23 12 7

/2
30.0 11.5 6.0 3.6

T
4.4 2.7 2.0 1.5

meters meters seconds

Bragg Sea Echo

mhz

5 13 25 42

/2

/2

SeaSonde Principles

Combining Radials into Totals

Surface Current Maps

[Paduan, J.D. and L.K. Rosenfeld, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 101, 1996]

SCIENCE RESULTS

NCAR Computer Language (NCL) used to plot currents


25% temporal coverage needed at each grid point

NCAR Computer Language (NCL) used to plot currents


25% temporal coverage needed at each grid point

NCAR Computer Language (NCL) used to plot currents


25% temporal coverage needed at each grid point

Winter

Spring

Summer

Fall

2008

2009

2010

Science Results Tracking Hurricane Irene

Hurricane Irene Approaches the MARACOOS HF Radar Network

Science Results Tracking Hurricane Irene


39.5N 73W Surface Current Time Series > Total Current Near-Inertial Current Period 18 hours

Hurricane Irene Approaches the MARACOOS HF Radar Network


HF Radar Wave & Wind Direction Time Series >

Science Results Tracking Hurricane Irene

Hurricane Irene Approaches the MARACOOS HF Radar Network

APPLICATION RESULTS

MIDDLE ATLANTIC REGIONAL DRIVERS

Tropical Storms Climate Change Ocean Circulation Critical Habitat

Northeasters
Population Ports

MARACOOS REGIONAL THEMES & SUCCESS STORIES


1) Maritime Operations Safety at Sea 3) Water Quality a) Floatables, b) Hypoxia, c) Nutrients

2) Ecosystem Decision Support Fisheries

5) Energy Offshore Wind


Areas under Consideration for Wind Energy Areas
760'W 7530'W 750'W 7430'W 740'W 7330'W

Pennsylvania

3930'N

Atlantic City Dover

390'N

Delaware

3830'N

Maryland

Ocean City

380'N

CHESAPEAKE BAY
3730'N

Vi rg i

ni a

New Jersey Delaware Maryland


370'N

Virginia
Virginia Beach
Nautical Miles

Virginia
760'W 7530'W 750'W 7430'W

10

15

20

25

30

740'W

7330'W

370'N

3730'N

380'N

3830'N

390'N

DELAWARE BAY

3930'N

4) Coastal Inundation - Flooding

Wilmington

New Jersey

U.S. Coast Guard: Search And Rescue Optimal Planning System SAROPS

Mid-Atlantic Operational Data Flow to SAROPS

SAROPS User Interface

SAROPS 96-Hour Search Area:

SAROPS 96-Hour Search Area: HF Radar

12,000 km2

U.S. Coast Guard: Search And Rescue Optimal Planning System SAROPS 1 Statistical & 3 Dynamical Data-Assimilative Forecast Models

1) STPS
U. Connecticut

2) NYHOPS
Stevens Institute of Technology

3) ROMS
Rutgers University

4) HOPS
U. Massachusetts, Dartmouth

Ecological Decision Support Fisheries

Divergent

+
Convergent

Our Approach: Develop statistical models using bottom trawl surveys and MARACOOS 3-D data to predict species distribution based on observed or forecasted MARACOOS 3-D fields.

Like Upwelling

Hate Downwelling

Downwelling

Upwelling

Downwelling

Upwelling

Water Quality Nearshore Currents

Alongshore Current

Nearshore currents derived from single site radial currents track the movement of water quality constituents within 3 km of the beach.

Offshore Energy High Resolution Atmospheric Forecast validated with HF radar

Spatial validation of Atmospheric Model with 13 MHz Multi-static HF Radar Array


High Resolution Wind Resource 670 m horizontal resolution

Wind Development Area

Expected Coverage

ENHANCING THE NETWORK WITH BISTATICS

Enhancing the Network with Bistatics

3 radars can provide 6 measurements

Radial Current Vectors

13 MHz

Totals from Radials

Optimal spacing should be 40 km 90 km

Elliptical Current Vectors

Totals from Radials & Ellipticals

Coverage Area from only Radials

VESSEL DETECTION WITH HF RADAR

HF Radar Spectra
Fixed Objects & Direct Signals Bragg Waves Vessel Bragg Waves

Vessel

Doppler Frequency

Signal Strength (dB)

GPS Track of YM Los Angeles

Pepper Plot of All Detections

Association of Detections with GPS

Detections on a Map

Conclusions
Mid Atlantic Long Range HF Radar Network is celebrating its 10th anniversary MARCOOS is delivering Quality Controlled Surface Current Data and Forecasts to the US Coast Guard for improved SAR HF Radar Network is helping to describe the nature of the flow in the Mid Atlantic We are also developing the dual-use capability of the radar for vessel detection