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The Johari Window

Origin of the Johari Window

Named after the first names of the American psychologists, Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham, in the 1950's while they were researching group dynamics. It is one of the most useful models describing the process of human interaction. Model is especially relevant because of the modern emphasis on soft skills, behavior, empathy, cooperation, inter-group development and interpersonal developments. Widely used to understand and train self-awareness, for personal development, to improve communications, interpersonal relationships, group dynamics, team development and inter-group relationships.

Represents information such as: feelings, experience, views, attitudes, skills, intentions, motivation, etc within or about a person in relation to their group, from four perspectives.
Luft and Ingham observed that there are aspects of our personality that we're open about, and other elements that we keep to ourselves. At the same time, there are things that others see in us that we're not aware of. As a result, you can draw up a four-box grid, which includes a fourth group of traits that are unknown to anyone

Feedback Known to self Known to others Open Area

Unknown to self
Blind Area


Unknown to others

Hidden Area

Unknown Area


Known to self
Open Area
Exposure Feedback Solicitation

Unknown to self Blind Area


Known to others

Unknown to others

Hidden Area

Unknown Area


Open Area contains things that are openly known and talked about - and which may be seen as strengths or weaknesses. This is the self that we choose to share with others. One can and should increase the size of this region by Exposure and Feedback Solicitation. E.g.: your name, your hair colour, Blind area contains things that others observe that we don't know about. Again, they could be positive or negative behaviours, and will affect the way that others act towards us. E.g.: your own manners, feeling of other persons about you.



Hidden area contains aspects of our self that we know about and keep hidden from others. E.g.: your secrets, hopes, desires, likes and dislikes.
Unknown area contains things that nobody knows about us - including ourselves. This may be because we've never exposed those areas of our personality, or because they're buried deep in the subconscious. E.g.: your values, beliefs, and experiences.


Main objective is to increase the size of the open are so that both you and you colleagues are aware of your perceptual limitations.
This is partly accomplished by reducing the hidden area and through Disclosure - informing others of your beliefs, feelings and experiences that may influence the work relationship. The open area also increases through Feedback from others about you behaviors. This information helps you to reduce your blind area, because co-workers often see things in you that you do not see.


Used for teaching and considering & administering an understanding of: How individuals communicate with themselves and with others. How individuals present themselves to themselves and to others. How individuals perceive their place in the world. As a management tool to demonstrate the dynamics in a team. As a self-development tool that helps to consider one's own 'behavior vs. reaction'.

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Easy to grasp, flexible outcomes. The method catalyses open information sharing. The method will create a shared reference point.

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Some things are perhaps better not communicated. Some people may pass on the information they received further than you desire. Some people may react negatively. A useless exercise if it is not linked to activities that reinforce positive behavior, or that correct negative behaviors.