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Cellular & Tissue Level of Organization

Presenter: Kavekini Neidiri

Identify and discuss the basic structure

and function of the three major components of a cell. List and briefly discuss the functions of the primary cellular organelles. Compare the major passive and active transport processes that act to move substances through cell membranes. Compare and discuss DNA and RNA and their function in protein synthesis.



Discuss the stages of mitosis and

explain the importance of cellular reproduction. Explain how epithelial tissue is grouped according to shape and arrangement of cells. List and briefly discuss the major types of connective and muscle tissue. List the three structural components of a neuron.

Smallest structural units of living

Foundation for modern biology

simple living things single celled.

Human beings trillions of cells

Size & Shape

Microscopic in size Vary in size Different shapes; threadlike, flat,

brick shaped, irregular

Cytoplasm (living matter) exists

only in cells Plasma membrane separates the cell contents from the dilute salt water called interstitial fluid Organelles specialized structures Nucleus circular body inside the cell

Parts of the Cell

Plasma membrane forms outer


Cytoplasm all living material

inside the cell except nucleus

Nucleus large, membrane bound

structure that contains genetic code

Plasma Membrane
Encloses cytoplasm & forms

boundary 2 phospholipid layers form fluid framework Cholesterol helps stabilize the phospholipid

Other Functions of Plasma Membrane

Well-guarded gateway between

fluid inside and fluid around it

Has receptor proteins for chemical


Surface proteins serve as positive

identification tags

Transport across the Membrane

Specialized living materials of cells bet. plasma membrane & nucleus Has organelles small structures

that make up much of the cytoplasm

Organelles : 1. Ribosomes Tiny particles made up of rRNA

Synthesize protein; a cells

protein factories

2. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

Connecting sacs & canals Carry proteins & other substances

from one area to another 2 types; rough & smooth Rough ER receives & transports newly made proteins and smooth ER makes new membrane.

3. Golgi Apparatus
Tiny, flattened sacs stacked on one

another near the nucleus

chemical processing and

packaging center

4. Mitochondria
2 membranous sacs; one inside the other Inner membrane from folds Energy-releasing chemical reactions occur power plants Enzymes break down glucose & other

nutrients to release energy required for cellular work Process called aerobic or cellular respiration

5. Lysosomes
Has walls made of membranes In its active stage look like small

sacs, often with tiny particles in them Digestive bags

Suicide bags

6. Centrioles
Paired organelles 2 of rod-shaped structure exist in

every cell Arrangement at angles to each other Composed of fine tubules play important role during cell division

7. Cilia
Extremely fine, almost hairlike

Capable of movement Highly specialized functions

8. Flagella
Projection extending from cell

surface Larger than cilia Eg tail of male sperm cell

Propulsive movements make sperm

able to swim

A small sphere in central portion of

cell Controls every organelle

Control complex process of cell

reproduction Surrounded by nuclear envelop

Nucleolus dense region of nuclear

material important for protein formation programs formation of ribosomes in nucleus Ribosome then migrate thru nuclear envelop into cytoplasm & produce proteins

Chromatin & Chromosomes

Chromatin granules are threadlike

structures made of proteins & DNA DNA genetic material chemical blueprint Chromosomes short, rodlike structures as a result of cell division

Relationship of Cell Structure & Function

Human cell performs certain

functions; - maintain cells survival, - others maintain the bodys survival No. & type of organelles allow cells to differ

Movement of Substances through Cell Membranes

Plasma membrane separates

contents of cells from fluid surrounding them Heavy traffics moves continuously in both directions Passive transport process Active transport process

Passive Transport Processes

1. Diffusion

a. Osmosis b. Dialysis 2. Filtration

Going down a concentration


Active Transport Processes

Uphill movement of substances From lower to higher concentration Energy required obtained from ATP

- ion pump - phagocytosis - pinocytosis

Clinical Application

RBC in iso, hypo, hypertonic sol.

Cell Transport & Disease

eg. Cystic fibrosis chloride pump problem Cholera chloride ions leak out

Cell Reproduction & Heredity

Mitosis process of cell

reproduction RNA in cytoplasm & DNA in nucleus play vital role in protein synthesis DNA molecules determine transmission & expression of heritable traits

Cell Division
Involves division of nucleus &

cytoplasm 2 daughter cells with genetic materials Stages of Cell Division prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

4 main types of tissues

1. epithelial tissue 2. connective tissue 3. muscle tissue 4. nervous tissue

Epithelial Tissue
Covers body & many of its parts Packed close together Classification according to shape:

1. squamous (flat & scalelike) 2. cuboidal (cube shaped) 3. columnar (higher than they wide) 4. transitional (varying shapes that can stretch)

Connective Tissue
Most abundant & widely distributed Found in skin, membranes,

muscles, bones, nerves, all internal organs Types of connective tissue Areolar, adipose, dense fibrous, bone, cartilage, blood, hemopoietic

Muscle Tissue
Contractility 3 types of muscle tissues:

1. skeletal (striated voluntary) 2. cardiac (striated involuntary 3. smooth (visceral or nonstriated involuntary)

Nervous Tissue
Function is rapid communication Contain 2 kinds of cells: neurons &

glia (neuroglia)
Neurons cell body, one axon &


Tissue Repair
Damaged tissue regenerate or

replaced by scars
Phagocytic cells remove

injured/dead cells
Filling in the gaps occur

Tissue Repair


Muscle tissue limited capacity to

regenerate thus heal itself, replaced with fibrous connective tissue

Nerve tissue limited capacity to


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