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A SUMMER TRAINING PRESENTATION ON ORACLE 10G AND DATABASE ADMINISTRATION

Presented By: Anil Kumar 7th Sem (Final Year)

DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

Database A set of inter-related data acting as a central reservoir of data that can be accessed by many users DBMS The software that manages database. A computer-based record keeping system which consists of software for processing a collection of interrelated data. Database Administrator Centrally manages the database. The DBA initially studies the System and accordingly decides its various process.

ORACLE 10G-APPLICATION SERVER &DATABASE


Portals
Object Relational Data

A P A C H E

Transactional Apps

Documents

XML Business intelligence


Multimedia

Integration

Messages

ORACLE INTERNET PLATFORM


a
Clients
Any browser Any mail client Any FTP client

System management

Development tools

Internet applications
Business logic and data Presentation and business logic

SQL

PL/SQL

Application Databases servers

Java

Network services

CODDS RULES FOR A DATABASE


CODDS RULES:

In 1970 Dr. E.F.Codd define some rules for designing an database. These rules are following:Information rule

Gurrented access rule


Systematic treatment of null values The database catalog must be relational too The system must implements a comprehensive data sublanguage Data view must be updatable High level insertion , update , delete Physical data independence Logical data independence Integrity data independence Distribution independency Non subversion Oracle supports 111/2 Codds rule.

INTRODUCTION TO SQL

SQL is used to make a request to retrieve data from a database.

The DBMS processes the SQL request, retrieves the requested data
from the database, and returns it.

This process of requesting data from a database and receiving back the results is called a Database Query and hence the name Structured Query Language.

Efficient, easy to learn and use. Functionally complete.

SQL STATEMENTS

SQL AND ISQL*PLUS INTERACTION

CONTROLLING USER ACCESS

Database administrator

Username and password Privileges


Users

PRIVILEGES
Database security: - System security - Data security System privileges: Gaining access to the database Object privileges: Manipulating the content of the database objects Schemas: Collections of objects, such as tables, views, and sequences The database administrator has high-level system privileges for tasks such as: Creating new users Removing users Removing tables Backing up tables

CREATING USERS & PRIVILEGES


The DBA creates users by using the CREATE USER statement. CREATE USER user IDENTIFIED BY password; Once a user is created, the DBA can grant specific system privileges to a user. GRANT privilege [, privilege...] TO user [, user| role, PUBLIC...]; An application developer, for example, may have the following system privileges: CREATE SESSION CREATE TABLE CREATE SEQUENCE CREATE VIEW CREATE PROCEDURE

WHAT IS A ROLE?

Users

Manager

Privileges
Allocating privileges without a role

CREATING AND GRANTING PRIVILEGES TO A ROLE AND CHANGING PASSWORD


Create a role
Create role anil;

Grant privileges to a role


Grant create table,create view to anil;

Grant a role to users


Grant anil to scott; The DBA creates your user account and initializes your password. You can change your password by using the ALTER USER statement. Alter user scott identified by tiger;

ARCHITECTURE OF ORACLE SERVER

PRIMARY COMPONENTS OF ORACLE SERVER ARCHITECTURE

Oracle server: There are several files, processes and memory structures in an oracle server, not all of them are used when processing a SQL statement. The oracle server consists of an oracle instance and an oracle database. Oracle instance: An oracle instance is the combination of the background processes and memory structures. Oracle database: An oracle database consists of operating system files, also known as database files that provide the actual physical storage for database information. The database files are used to ensure that the data is kept consistent and can be recovered in the event of a failure of a instance.

LOGICAL ARCHITECTURE

PROCESSING ON A SQL STATEMENT


Connect to an instance using: The user process The server process The Oracle server components that are used depend on the type of SQL statement: Queries return rows. DML statements log changes. Commit ensures transaction recovery. Some Oracle server components do not participate in SQL statement processing. A data manipulation language (DML) statement requires only two phases of processing, 1. Parse is the same as the parse phase used for processing a query. 2. Execute requires additional processing to make data changes.

STARTING DATABASE IN RHEL

Starting Up To start up an instance, use the following command: STARTUP [FORCE] [RESTRICT] [PFILE=filename] [OPEN [RECOVER][database] |MOUNT |NOMOUNT] Changing the Status of the Database To open the database from STARTUP NOMOUNT to a MOUNT stage or from MOUNT to an ALTER DATABASE { MOUNT | OPEN } To start up an instance, use the following command: ALTER DATABASE OPEN [READ WRITE| READ ONLY] Opening a Database in Restricted Mode command: ALTER SYSTEM [ {ENABLE|DISABLE} RESTRICTED SESSION ] Terminate Sessions ALTER SYSTEM KILL SESSION 'integer1, integer2'

SHUTTING DOWN THE DATABASE

Shut down the database to make operating system offline backups of all physical structures and to have modified static initialization parameters take effect.To shut down an instance you must connect as SYSOPER or SYSDBA and use the following command: SHUTDOWN [NORMAL | TRANSACTIONAL | IMMEDIATE | ABORT ]

DATABASE ADMINISTRATOR
A database administrator (DBA) is a person who is responsible for the environmental aspects of a database. In general, these include: a) Recoverability - Creating and testing backups b) Integrity - Verifying or helping to verify data integrity c) Security - Defining and/or implementing access controls to the data d) Performance - Ensuring maximum performance

DATABASE ADMINISTRATOR
A database administrator (DBA) is a person who is responsible for the environmental aspects of a database. In general, these include: a) Recoverability - Creating and testing backups b) Integrity - Verifying or helping to verify data integrity c) Security - Defining and/or implementing access controls to the data d) Performance - Ensuring maximum performance

THANK YOU !!!!!!!!!!!

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