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# Vapor and Combined Power Cycles

TOPICS
Vapor Power Cycles Rankine Power Cycle modifications to increase efficiency Reheat and Regenerative cycles Combined cycles Binary cycles

STEAM ENGINE

## The Carnot Vapor Cycle (Is it possible ???!!!)

Impracticability: ??!!! 2-phase devices
Impracticability: ??!! Max temp Tcr

The General James M Gavin Steam Power Plant ,Ohio full capacity: 2,600,000kW

## Well simplify the power plant

3 BOILER 2 TURBINE

qin
4 CONDENSER 1 PUMP

wout

qout

win

Example 10-1

Example 10-1

Example 10-4

## Closed feedwater heater with TRAP

The General James M Gavin Steam Power Plant ,Ohio full capacity: 2,600,000kW

## feedwater pump is driven by a separate 65,000HP turbine (FPT)

The system has four low pressure closed feedwater heaters, one open feedwater heater / de-aerator, and three high pressure closed feedwater heaters.

Consider a steam power plant operating on the ideal regenerative Rankine cycle with one open feedwater heater. Steam enters the turbine at 15 Mpa and 600C and is condensed in the condenser at a pressure of 10 kPa. Some steam leaves the turbine at a pressure of 1.2 MPa and enters the open feedwater heater. Determine the fraction of steam extracted from the turbine and the thermal efficiency of the cycle.

Example 10-5

Example 10-6

Problem 10-42

Problem 10-53

Problem 10-61E

Problem 10-62

Problem 10-78

Problem 10-81

Problem 10-91

Problem 10-28

Problem 10-29

Problem 10-30

## Desirable properties of working fluid

1. A high critical temperature and a safe maximum pressure. A critical temperature above the metallurgically allowed maximum temperature (about 620C) makes it possible to transfer a considerable portion of the heat isothermally at the maximum temperature as the fluid changes phase. This makes the cycle approach the Carnot cycle.

2. Very high pressures at the maximum temperature are undesirable because they create material-strength problems
3. A condenser pressure that is not too low. Condensers usually operate below atmospheric pressure. Pressures well below the atmospheric pressure create air-leakage problems. Therefore, a substance whose saturation pressure at the ambient temperature is too low is not a good candidate.

5. A high enthalpy of vaporization (hfg) so that heat transfer to the working fluid is nearly isothermal and large mass flow rates are not needed. 6. Low triple-point temperature. A triple-point temperature below the temperature of the cooling medium prevents any solidification problems. 7. A saturation dome that resembles an inverted U. This eliminates the formation of excessive moisture in the turbine and the need for reheating. 8. Good heat transfer characteristics (high thermal conductivity). 9. Other properties such as being inert, inexpensive, readily available, and nontoxic.

Well, we cannot change the way water behaves during the high-temperature part of the cycle, but we certainly can replace it with a more suitable fluid. The result is a power cycle that is actually a combination of two cycles, one in the high-temperature region and the other in the low-temperature region. Such a cycle is called a binary vapor cycle. In binary vapor cycles, the condenser of the high-temperature cycle (also called the topping cycle) serves as the boiler of the lowtemperature cycle (also called the bottoming cycle). That is, the heat output of the high-temperature cycle is used as the heat input to the low-temperature one.

## Mercurywater binary vapour cycle.

New ideas
Cogeneration Gas-vapor Combined power cycles

MODIFIED RANKINE