Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 27

Introduction to Research in Nursing

Welcome

Definition

Research is a scientific process of inquiring and/or experimentation that involves purposeful, systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of data in order to gain new knowledge or add to existing knowledge to solve problem.

What Research is NOT

Research is not going to the library to collect existing material such as someones report. The activity of re-organization and / or restatement of already known knowledge is referred to as search.

Purpose of Research

Finding answers to questions or solution to problems. Discovery and interpretation of new facts. Testing of theories (revising) Formulation of new theories. Describing, explaining, predicting and controlling phenomena.

Areas in Health System where Research required

Policy

national development plan priority health needs equity in the provision of health services respect for cultural and humanitarian values.

The environment

improvement of living conditions provision of clean air, water and sanitation adequate disposal of industrial wastes preservation of natural resources.

Administration and Management


agreement with policy effectiveness and efficiency in financial management, management of equipment, training and supervision. development of adequate monitoring and evaluation procedures study of organizational behaviour

The Community
development of institutions and practices in promoting health. community participation in health activities.

Individuals and Families


assessment of physical, mental and socio-economic needs potential for addressing specific health problems and needs

Direct services

appropriateness effectiveness efficiency acceptability

Education

content of training programs teaching methods assessment methods outcome of training.

Multi-disciplinary skills required

Political science, policy analysis, technology assessment, behavioural sciences, economics, epidemiology, environmental sciences, biology,

Multi-disciplinary skills required

social work, community development, clinical, epidemiology, quality assurance, bio-medical sciences, operations research, strategic planning, management sciences, health economics.

Research in Nursing

InternationallyLocally -

advanced under-developed

Reasons for lack of Development in Fiji

lack of knowledge / skills lack of interest shortage of staff lack of support from managers status of nursing lack of resources - computers, funds

Goals of Nursing

The goal of nursing research is to improve the practice and profession of nursing for the ultimate improvement of patient care.

How Research benefits Nursing profession and practice?

Enables understanding of phenomena Discovers new things Solves problems. Facilitates evidence based practice. Evaluates nursing theories and techniques - old ones - new implementations

How Research benefits Nursing profession and practice?


Ensures quality care Ensures cost-effective care. Saves time eliminate the unnecessary Explore quicker ways of operations Ensures professional practice and image of nursing development Ensures accountability. Enables nurses to fulfill societal and cultural needs. Prevents communication barriers international - doctors and other professionals Can increase motivation of nurses or reduce frustrations and stress.

Limitations of Research in Nursing

Experimentation is not feasible on moral, ethical and legal grounds. Questions involving morality or value system cannot be explored with the scientific approach. Psychological phenomena such as anger and anxiety are difficult to measure. Human nature is complex values change, multiple variables act as causative factors for happenings and there are several moderators.

Clarifications of Research

Classification by Purpose
Basic Research or Pure Research

This is concerned with establishing new knowledge or development or refinement of theories (knowledge for the sake of knowledge) The findings may not be immediately applicable, but may provide knowledge that can be utilized later.

Applied Research

Is also concerned with new knowledge, but can be utilized immediately.

Classification by Approach

Descriptive - describes what exists. Experimental manipulating specific conditions to see the results. Historical Approach determines the accuracy of statements or facts about past events.

Steps in Research

Selection, analysis and statement of the problem. Literature Review. Formulation of Objectives. Research Methodology. Formulation of Hypothesis. Data collection. Analysis and interpretation (discussion) of data. Formulation of conclusions and implications. Report writing.

InternationallyLocally -

advanced under-developed

Reasons for lack of Development in Fiji.

lack of knowledge / skills lack of interest shortage of staff lack of support from managers status of nursing lack of resources - computers, funds

How Research benefits Nursing profession and practice?

The goal of nursing research is to improve the practice and profession of nursing for the ultimate improvement of patient care.

References
Burns, N. & Grove, S. K. (2005). The practice of nursing research: conduct critique and utilization (5th ed.). Missouri: Elsevier. Wilson, H. S. (1987). Introduction to Nursing Research. Philadelphia: Lippincott.