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HOSPITAL INFORMATION SYSTEM

INTRODUCTION
HIS are computer based software applications that integrate many medical, nursing, administrative and miscellaneous functions of hospitals.

COMPONENTS
Two major components of HIS are 1. IT Component 2. Applications of Jobs

IT COMPONENT
The computer parts that are essential to delivery of a HIS could be broken down into the following. a. Hardware b. Software

HARDWARE
Hardware are the computers and the monitors. Hardware which were available on the early days of HIS implementation were stand alone systems doing simple tasks with basic software programs.

Rapid progress in technology has led to very high-end computers, which are connected to a server. Some advanced systems outsource their entire IT operations to a third party computer firm. This is called an ASP (Application Service Provider)

SOFTWARE
Many types of software are necessary for various functions of the computers; Very important OS (Operating System) which are used commonly are WINDOWS, DBS (Data Base management Software), ORACLE, LINUX, UNIX

ANTIVIRUS
Antivirus software is necessary to prevent computer viruses from corrupting the system. These software's need to be updated on a daily basis.

CLIENT SERVER TECHNOLOGY SOFTWARE


Most HIS systems us client server technology software. Useful in integrating the administrative and integrative medical information. Common examples of this type of softwares are COBRA and CORBA.

APPLICATIONS
Simple systems would only used for accounts and billing. Complex systems would include electronic medical records (EMR) and Nursing and Ward management and decision making software.

Medical components of HIS revolves around the EMR. Prescribing and Laboratory information would also be available. Nursing functions can be incorporated in a HIS. Routine information about bed status, nursing procedures and medication administration.

Administrative functions of HIS include managing employees, cash flow projections, equipment purchase and maintenance and various other administrative matters.

MEDICAL AND NURSING FUNCTIONS OF HIS


PATIENT REGISTRATION CONSULTATION RECORDS EMR COMPUTERIZED PHYSICIAN ENTRY (POE) WARD MANAGEMENT PHARMACY LABORATORY DIET MANAGEMENT

ORDER

PATIENT REGISTRATION
Patients are registered initially when they visit the hospital initially. All details of patients are computerized and they are given a unique number. Some hospitals issues cards like credit cards for retrieval of record at a later date. Bar coding is useful in unique identification of patients.

CONSULTATION RECORDS
Instead of keeping paper records, consultation records kept on the HIS would be more orderly and would indicate the date and time of the consult. It would be valuable for insurance and medico-legal purposes.

EMR
Electronic Medical Records are comprehensive data of patients admitted to the hospital. They are similar to folders which contains all patients details. These information's are confidential and can be accessed only by an authorized persons.

COMPUTERIZED PHYSICIAN ORDER ENTRY Medication errors are a major source of mortality and morbidity of hospitalized patients. A computerized entry will have clarity of the medication name and dosage. Drug interactions would generate alerts. Tracking and audit of medications can be done easily.

WARD MANAGEMENT
HIS are very useful in tracking patients from the time of registration till discharge. Bed occupancy and availability can be visualized easily. Doctors visits and progress notes can be recorded. All nursing details can be planned, entered and can be audited.

PHARMACY
Stocks of drugs are available instantaneously. Orders for medications can be done electronically. Billing is instant. Effective implementation would reduce pliferage.

LABORATORY
HIS will be extremely useful in deciding investigations, ordering and viewing investigations. Maintaining a chart of investigations could be easy. New test and their collection protocols are viewed.

DIET MANAGEMENT
Planning, execution and monitoring proper diet management systems is a very important part of hospital function. A HIS can improve the efficiency in this department substantially.

ADMINISTRATION FUNCTIONS
The entire hospital administrative functions are integrated into HIS. Some of the essential functions are as follows. 1. Human resources 2. House keeping functions 3. Stores 4. Front office

HUMAN RESOURCE FUNCTION


Keeping a track on staff requirements, training, efficiency and error tracking are functions, which can be easily addressed.

HOUSE KEEPING FUNCTION


House keeping function can be streamlined and monitored.

STORES
Purchase and inventory management is very important in keeping costs down in a hospital. Keeping track of equipments are very important. Ordering, repairs, spares and maintenance of equipments becomes easy.

CSSD, marketing, ambulance, security and billing can be customized for the various areas of the hospital like in patients, out patients, pharmacy and laboratory etc.

FRONT OFFICE
Details of consultants and their timings and leave status is available here. Some front office personnel also schedule appointments, mailing and correspondence is also handled here.

CONCLUSIONS
HIS encompasses the application of IT in the hospital setting. An ideal JIS design should be focused on the linking of financial information system (FIS) and Management Information System (MIS).