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Submitted by, Mohamed Nihad T.P.M.

10109114031 3rd Year Mechanical Engineering AALIM MUHAMMED SALEGH COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

ABSTRACT
Alternative energy is an umbrella term that refers to any source of usable energy intended to replace fuel sources without the undesired consequences of the replaced fuels. The term "alternative" presupposes a set of undesirable energy technologies against which "alternative energies" are contrasted. As such, the list of energy technologies excluded is an indicator of which problems the alternative technologies are intended to address. Controversies regarding dominant sources of energy and their alternatives have a long history. The nature of what was regarded alternative energy sources has changed considerably over time, and today, because of the variety of energy choices and differing goals of their advocates, defining some energy types as "alternative" is highly controversial. In a general sense in contemporary society, alternative energy is that which is produced without the undesirable consequences of the burning of fossil fuels, such as high carbon dioxide emissions, which is considered to be the major contributing factor . Sometimes, this less comprehensive meaning of "alternative energy" excludes nuclear energy.

ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF ENERGY


INTRODUCTION
The term "alternative energy" (also: renewable energy) encompasses a variety of power generation sources. Generally, it refers to electrical power derived from "renewable" resources such as solar or wind energy, as opposed to "single-use" resources such as coal or uranium. The most common forms of alternative energy available for homeowner use today are solar power, wind power and "micro-hydro" power. The benefits of using renewable energy sources are considerable. From an environmental standpoint, solar, wind and water power are all non-emission power sources. Unlike coal combustion power plants, no harmful exhaust is produced when using alternative energy generators. There is also no worry about toxic or radioactive waste products, as there is with nuclear power. In addition to the lack of emissions and waste products, no valuable resources are "used up" with renewable resource power generation. If every home on earth were powered with an alternative energy system, it would never cause a shortage of wind, water or sunlight.

COMMON TYPE OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY

Solar energy

Solar energy is used commonly for heating, cooking, the production of electricity, and even in the desalination of seawater. solar power works by trapping the sun's rays into solar cells where this sunlight is then converted into electricity. Additionally, solar power uses sunlight that hits solar thermal panels to convert sunlight to heat water or air. Other methods include using sunlight that hits parabolic mirrors to heat water (producing steam), or simply opening a rooms blinds or window shades to allow entering sunlight to passively heat a room.

Wind energy
Wind energy is generating of electricity from the wind. Wind energy harnesses the power of the wind to propel the blades of wind turbines. The rotation of turbine blades is converted into electrical current by means of an electrical generator. In the older windmills, wind energy was used to turn mechanical machinery to do physical work, like crushing grain or pumping water.Wind towers are usually built together on wind farms. Now, electrical currents are harnessed by large scale wind farms that are used by national electrical grids as well as small individual turbines used for providing electricity to isolated locations or individual homes. In 2005, worldwide capacity of wind-powered generators was 58,982 megawatts, their production making up less than 1 of world-wide electricity use.

Geothermal energy
Literally, geothermal means, "earth heat." Geothermal energy harnesses the heat energy present underneath the Earth. Hot rocks under the ground heat water to produce steam. When holes are drilled in the region, the steam that shoots up is purified and is used to drive turbines, which power electric generators.

Hydrogen
Hydrogen is used as clean fuel for airplanes, spaceships, and vehicles. Hydrogen alternative energy and nuclear energy are also frequently mentioned as the alternative sources of energy; however, they are surrounded by growing disputes on their safety for the environment, so it is still unclear how long those energy sources will remain marked as alternative and environment friendly energy sources.

RELATIVELY NEW CONCEPTS OF ENERGY


Algae fuel
Algae fuel is a biofuel which is derived from algae. During photosynthesis, algae and other photosynthetic organisms capture carbon dioxide and sunlight and convert it into oxygen and biomass. The benefits of algal biofuel are that it can be produced industrially, thereby obviating the use of arable land and food crops (such as soy, palm, and canola), and that it has a very high oil yield as compared to all other sources of biofuel.

Biogas digestion
Biogas digestion deals with harnessing the methane gas that is released when waste breaks down. This gas can be retrieved from garbage or sewage systems. Biogas digesters are used to process methane gas by having bacteria break down biomass in an anaerobic environment.The methane gas that is collected and refined can be used as an energy source for various products.

Floating wind farms


Floating wind farms are similar to a regular wind farm, but the difference is that they float in the middle of the ocean. Offshore wind farms can be placed in water up to 40 metres (130 ft) deep, whereas floating wind turbines can float in water up to 700 metres (2,300 ft) deep. The advantage of having a floating wind farm is to be able to harness the winds from the open ocean.

ADVANTAGES
Alternative energy sources have several environmental advantages over carbonbased fuel sources. They are usually much cleaner than carbon-based energy sources in that they usually emit much lower levels of exhaust than carbon-based fuels. Some alternative energy sources, such as solar and wind energy, emit no exhaust at all. The second major environment advantage that alternative fuel sources have over carbon-based fuel is that they are renewable. This means that the supply can be restored, which eliminates the possibility of exhausting the entire supply of a given source of fuel. Finally, alternative energy sources are generally "clean" in their production and in their use, as opposed to coal. While coal reserves are plentiful in many countries outside the Middle East, coal is considered a "dirty" form of fuel, which normally produces heavy exhaust. The mining of coal also presents environmental challenges, with some mining processes, such as strip mining and mountain top removal mining, being especially harmful to the physical environment. Alternative fuel sources have other advantages over carbon-based fuels. Presently, most of the known, readily accessible petroleum sources are located in areas of geopolitical instability. Besides being a major factor in price fluctuation, dependence on foreign oil leaves countries vulnerable to the political will of the countries which control the deposits.Other petroleum deposits are located in areas that are physically difficult to access, which has previously made it financially unfeasible to tap those reserves. Renewable forms of energy, such as biofuel, solar energy and wind energy, are readily available.

CONCLUSION
From the above facts its clear that non-renewable resources are depleting day by day. Hence it is necessary to depend alternative source of energy for better development of India.As an engineer its our responsibility for saving resources for future generations.So let us take a pledge that, we will save and conserve our energy resources.