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INTRODUCTION I use the word nursing for want of a better. It has been limited to signify little more than the administration of medicines and the application of poultices. It ought to signify the proper use of fresh air, light, warmth, cleanliness, quiet, and the proper selection and administration of dietall at the least expense of vital power to the patient.

Florence Nightingale

Ensuring safe and effective administration of medications to clients is an important component of nursing care. Nursing pharmacotherapeutics requires the application of knowledge from a variety of sources. The registered nurse is educated in drug actions, effects, adverse reactions & factors. Administering medications involves more than just the technical task. Competent medication administration requires the ability. Pharmacotherapeutics, the use of drugs to prevent, modify or cure disease, is among the most frequently used medical treatment. Expectations of society and increasing nursing expertise have expanded the registered nurses role from simple administration to collaboration, in which the registered nurse contributes to the design, implementation and evaluation of the clients drug regimen. Assessment and evaluation of the appropriateness of the medication is done in collaboration with the client.

Evaluation of the appropriateness of a medication requires knowledge of actions, interactions, side effects (including allergic reactions), usual dose, route and approved use, basic pharmacokinetics of the drug and the clients response to it. Competent medication administration also includes preparing the medication according to directions, monitoring the client while administering the medication, appropriately intervening as necessary, evaluating the outcome of the medication on the clients health status and documenting the process NURSES need to assess their competence to safely and effectively carry out their roles and responsibilities for medication administration in each situation.


The preparation and administration of medication are at the core of nursing practice, and nurses' involvement in pharmacotherapy is essential to medication safety. Drug therapy, prescribed by physicians, is mostly carried out by nurses, who are expected to master all aspects of medication. It is important to ensure that patients do not mistakenly receive the wrong medication, wrong dose in wrong time. Insufficient knowledge is a factor in nurses' drug administration errors. Most errors do not harm to patients, but incorrect administration of high-alert medications can result in serious consequences. Sufficient knowledge about high-alert medications is vital.Medication errors are often involved in reporting adverse events such as ineffectiveness, drug resistance, drug reactions.

Researcher has revealed the need for improved knowledge in drug dose calculation, and medication knowledge as a whole. The survey was conducted with the purpose to study registered nurses' medication knowledge, certainty and estimated risk of errors, and to explore factors associated with good study. This cross-sectional survey among nurses in a universityaffiliated general community hospital investigated selfreported medication practices and sources of error, Using sub-scales and items assessing different aspects of practice (dosage care, right patient, preparing/carrying medications and reporting errors) and the investigators were able to identify areas where practices may need improvement.

An another study demonstrated the need for more education for all nurses, taking into consideration the role adjustment period for new nurses as well as the time associated with preceptorship programs. The authors acknowledge that more research is needed on the impact of senior nurses, preceptor ship programs and patient care unit safety culture on the medication safety practices of junior nurses. It has been observed that in SDM Hospital, the medication errors committed by registered nurse`s are increase. Hence the investigators felt to undertake a study to identify type & nature of medication errors occurring in this hospital so that findings of the study will guide to plan course of action & activities to minimize medication errors & provide safe nursing care to the client.

Review of literature is a critical summary of research on a topic of interest, often prepared to put a research problem in context. Study was conducted on Administering medication is an important function of registered nurses. It is therefore necessary that nursing students develop knowledge and skill in this field. Given the propensity for, and negative consequences of, medication errors, it is essential that nursing students are property supervised in this role. There is currently a paucity of research examining the practices of supervising medication administration by nursing students, particularly from the perspectives of registered nurses. The aim of this study was to explore the opinions and insights of registered nurses regarding the supervision of nursing students administering medication. Focus groups were conducted with registered nurses with experience of working with students in the clinical environment. Focus groups were transcribed verbatim and data analysis was

conducted using the five stage framework approach. Four main themes were identified that reflected the participants' views of the factors most strongly influencing the provision of supervision: communication, busyness, attitudes, and pressure to conform. The participants identified the importance of providing student supervision and suggested strategies for improvement, such as a closer working relationship between the clinical facilitator and the registered nurses providing supervision.(12.1)

A cross sectional study conducted on Medication knowledge, certainty, and risk of errors in health care in Dept, of Research, Innlandet Hospital Trust, Brumunddal, Norway. Results was Two-hundred and three registered nurses participated (including 16 males), aged 42.0 (9.3) years with a working experience of 12.4 (9.2) years. CONCLUSIONS: The Medication knowledge was found to be unsatisfactory among nurses, with a significant risk for medication errors. The study revealed a need to improve the nurses basic knowledge, especially when referring to drug management.

A cross sectional study was conducted on nurses' knowledge of high-alert medications: instrument development and validation in Department of Nursing, Chang Gung Institute of Technology, Taoyuan, Taiwan. Aim of This paper is a report of the development and validation of an instrument to measure nurses' knowledge of high-alert medications and to analyze known administration errors Findings : A total of 305 nurses participated, giving a 79.2% response rate (305/385). Concluded the questionnaire was valid and reliable. Evidence-based results strongly suggest that nurses have insufficient knowledge about high-alert medications and could benefit from additional education, particularly associated with intravenous bolus administration of high-alert medications.


OBJECTIVES 1. To Assess the Knowledge of students regarding Administration of Medication. 2. To Find out the association between students, Knowledge, and Selected demographic variables

ASSESS: Evaluate or estimate the nature, quality, ability, extent, or signification of, the students responsibility to administer the medication. ADMINISTRATION OF MEDICATION: Administering medications to patients for a defined period of time, including physicians orders and time to administer the agents, It is possible to more accurately check and confirm the right medication process is being followed than is possible with a typical.

KNOWLEDGE: Refers to correct responses of students to the items listed in the self administered questionnaire regarding administers the medication. STUDENTS: Refers to the students studying in 3rd year B.Sc (N) in SDM Institute Of Nursing Sciences Sattur,Dharwad. ASSUMPTION Students have some knowledge about administration of medication. HYPOTHESIS There will be significant association between students medication knowledge and selected socio demographic variables at 0.05 level of significance. The medication error committed by students is dependent on medication knowledge.

DELIMITATIONS The study will be limited to 3rd Year B.Sc (N) students. MATERIALS & METHODS SOURCE OF DATA Data will be collected from 3rd Year B.Sc(N) students. RESEARCH DESIGN AND APPROACH: Non-experimental descriptive design VARIABLES UNDER STUDY: Study variable knowledge regarding medication administration among students. Attribute Variables - Personal characteristics which include age, gender. SETTING: SDM Institute of Nursing Sciences, Sattur, Dharwad.

POPULATION: The population consists of 3rd Year B.Sc(N) students. METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION: SAMPLING PROCEDURE: Purposive sampling technique. SAMPLE SIZE: 40 B.Sc nursing students. DURATION OF THE STUDY: 30 days.

INCLUSION CRITERIA 3rd year B.Sc students who are studying in SDM Institute Of Nursing Sciences. who are willing to participate in the study. are available at the time of data collection. EXCLUSION CRITERIA FOR SAMPLING 3rd year B.Sc students who are not willing to participate in the study. who are not available at the time of data collection

INSTRUMENTS INTENDED TO BE USED: The investigator will develop a structured questionnaire for collecting the data which will be consisting of 3-parts. (1) Part-1 demographic data.. (2) Part-2 knowledge questionnaire. DATA COLLECTION METHOD: The investigators will collect the data from the 3rd year B.Sc students using structured questionnaire on knowledge questionnaire. DATA ANALYSIS PLAN: The data will be analysed by using descriptive statistics such as Mean, Median, standard deviation, frequencies and percentages.

Chi square test. Collected data will be presented by using graphs and diagrams Does the study require any investigations or interventions to be conducted on nurses, If so please describe briefly. No, the study will be conducted on assess the knowledge and Practice of staff nurses regarding Administration of medication in selected SDM Hospital, Dharwad. Has ethical clearance been obtained from your institution in case 11. Yes, ethical clearance is obtained from the Institution's ethical committee.

(12.1)(Reid-Searl K, Happell B. Factors influencing the supervision of nursing students administering medication: the registered nurse perspective. Collegian. Institute for Health and Social Science Research, School of Nursing and Midwifery, CQUniversity Australia, Bruce Highway, Rockhampton, Queensland 4702, Australia. 2011;18(4):139-46.)