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Chapter 3: BATTERIES VEHICLE BATTERIES

Introduction

The battery is an electrochemical device. It converts chemical

energy into electrical energy.

The battery produces electricity to operate the starting motor and ignition system while starting the engine. Discharging - Battery changes chemical energy into electrical energy - Current flow out of the battery Charging - Electrical energy is converted into chemical energy

- Battery stores the energy until it needed

Automotive Batteries

An automotive battery is a type of rechargeable battery that supplies electric energy to an automobile. Automotive batteries (usually of lead-acid type) provide a nominal 12-volt potential difference by connecting six galvanic cells in series. Each cell provides 2.1 volts for a total of 12.6 volt at full charge. Lead-acid batteries are made up of plates of lead and separate plates of lead dioxide, which are submerged into an electrolyte solution of about 35% sulfuric acid and 65% water.

The function of Battery


1.

To operate starter motor, ignition system, relays during cranking of the engine

2.

Supply all of the electrical power for the car whenever the
engine is not running

3.

Help the charging system in providing electricity when

demand is above the output of the charging system


4. 5.

Store electrical energy for extended periods Act as a voltage stabilizer that smoothen the current

through the vehicle electrical system


6.

To allow dynamic memory and alarm system to remain active when the vehicle is left for a period of time

Only the battery as power supply.


When engine is stopped, the battery operates all electrical devices . When engine is starting, the battery operates the starter motor discharged current flows from the battery

When only the alternator is the power supply

After the engine starts, the alternator operates all electrical devices & recharges the battery at the same time - charging current flows into the battery

When both are used as a power supply

Right after the engine is started, if the electrical load is too great for the alternator, the battery contributes electrical power - discharged current flows from the battery

While the car is running, almost all power is supplied by the alternator. An imbalance in the relationship between the battery and the alternator may cause the battery to become discharge.

Construction of the Battery


An automobile battery contains; 1. diluted sulphuric acid (electrolyte) 2. positive plates 3. negative plates

Construction of the Battery


Internally, a battery is separated into several cells (usually six in the case of automobile batteries) and in each cell there are several battery elements (plates), all submerged in the electrolyte The positive plates and negatives plates are each connected together by separate plate straps These groups of positive and negative plates are then placed alternately, separated by separators and fibre glass mats . Grouping the plates in this way serves to enlarge the contact area between the active materials and the electrolyte, allowing a greater amount of electricity to be supplied.

Construction of the Battery

Construction of the Battery


1. Positive Plates Lead peroxide (brown colour) as active material formed on mesh / grid framework Strap together to form positive plate group Standard car battery has 1.52 mm grid thickness - One plate less is common practice 2. Negative Plates . Pure lead (grey colour) sponge lead as active material formed on mesh / grid framework Strap together to form negative plate group Standard car battery has 1.40 mm grid thickness -One plate more is common practice 3.Separator Insulated and corrosion resistant material such as PVC, paper based, glass fiber Must have correct pore structure for the electrolyte passage - Prevent positive & negative plate from touching.

Construction of the Battery

Construction of the Battery


4.Grid To conduct electricity to and from active material and to support the active material Grid is made of lead + antimony - but promotes electrolyte gassing (loss of electrolyte) Grid of lead + calcium is used for maintenance free battery minimum loss of electrolyte

Heavy duty

Construction of the Battery


5.Container / battery case Plastic container, corrosion resistance material It is divided into six compartments or cells Upper and lower electrolyte level markers are provided on the translucent battery case showing electrolyte level The plates are raised up off the bottom of the case with ribs to prevent them from shorting out if any of the active materials should happen to fall from the plates

Construction of the Battery


6. Vent Plugs Vent plugs are caps for the holes that are used for adding electrolyte They are also designed to separate the hydrogen gas (from when the battery charges) and sulphuric acid mist that are present in the air inside the battery by allowing the hydrogen gas to escape through the vent holes and the sulphuric acid mist to condense on the sides of the vents and drop back into the battery

Construction of the Battery


7. CELL CONNECTORS: Heavy, cast alloy metal straps are welded to the negative terminal of one cell and the positive terminal of the adjoining cell until all six cells are connected in series. 8. CELL PARTITIONS: Part of the case, the partitions separate each cell. 9. TERMINAL POSTS: Positive and negative posts (terminals) on the case top have thick, heavy cables connected to them. These cables connect the battery to the vehicle's electrical system (positive) and to ground (negative). 10. ELECTROLYTE: A mixture of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and water (H2O). It reacts chemically with the active materials in the plates to create an electrical pressure (voltage). And, it conducts the electrical current produced by that pressure from plate to plate. A fully charged battery will have about 36% acid and 64% water.

S.G (Specific Gravity)

Electrolyte - Sulfuric acid & distilled water(H2O) Electrolyte that are used in batteries today have a specific gravity (S.G) of either 1.26 or 1.28 (at 20C) when the battery is fully charged . The difference is due to the particular ratio of distilled water to sulphuric acid the electrolyte having a S.G of 1.26 contains 65% distilled water and 35% sulphuric acid while the electrolyte having a S.G of 1.28 contains 63% distilled water and 37% sulphuric acid

Battery Identification Codes

Batteries that are made in Japan are given a battery identification code according to a Japan Industrial Standard (JIS) The code indicates the battery capacity, dimensions and the position of the positive terminal (right or left side)

Battery Identification Codes


1.Performance This indicates the battery's capacity indirectly. The chart shows the relationship between battery identification codes and battery capacity. The capacity is expressed in ampere-hours
Battery 10 code 288 17 R/L 34817R/L 288 19 R/L 348 19 R/L 36820 R/L I Battery capacity IS-hour rate) 24 27 24 27 28 Battery 10 code 65 D 26 R/L 75 D 26 R/L 80 D 26 R/L 65 D 31 R/L 75 D 31 R/L Battery capacity IS-hour rate) 52 52 55 56 60

38820 R/L
46824R/L 50824 R/L 55824 R/L 32 C 24 R/L 50D20R/L 55 D 23 R/L 65 D 23 R/L 48 D 26 R/L 55 D 26 R/L

28
36 36 36 32 40 48 52 . 40 48

95D31R/L
95E41 R/L 105E41 R/L 115E41 R/L 130E41 R/L 115F51 150 F 51 145 F 51 170 F 51

64
80 83 88 92 96 108 112 120

Battery Identification Codes


2) Battery Width and Height The battery's width and height combination is indicated by one of the eight letters (A to H)
Width (mm) A B C 0 E 162 203 207 204 213 Height (rnrn) 127 127 or 129 135 173 176

F
G H

213
213 220

182
222 278

Battery Identification Codes


3.Position of the Positive Terminal The position of the positive terminal of a battery is indicated either by R (right side), L (left side) or blank

Battery Identification Codes

CELL THEORY
A lead-acid cell works by a simple principle: when two different metals are immersed in an acid solution, a chemical reaction creates an electrical pressure. Lead dioxide (Pb02) has a positive electrical charge. The other metal is sponge lead (Pb). It has a negative electrical charge. The electrolyte, acid solution is a mixture of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and water (H20).

If a conductor and a load are connected between the two metals, current will flow. This discharging will continue until the metals become alike and the acid is used up. The action can be reversed by sending current into the cell in the opposite direction. This charging will continue until the cell materials are restored to their original condition.

Battery Electromotive Force (EMF)

The electromotive force (EMF) generated by one cell is approximately 2.1 V, regardless of the quantity or size of the plates Since automobile batteries have six cells that are connected in series, their nominal output EMF is about 12 V

ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTION

A lead-acid storage battery can be partially discharged and recharged many times. There are four stages in this discharging/charging cycle. 1. CHARGED: A fully charged battery contains a negative plate of sponge lead (Pb), a positive plate of lead dioxide (Pb02), and electrolyte of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and water (H20).

ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTION
2.
DISCHARGING : As the battery is discharging, the electrolyte becomes diluted and the plates become sulfated The electrolyte divides into hydrogen (H+) and sulfate(S042-) The ion hydrogen (H+) combines with oxygen (02-) from the positive plate to form more water (H20). The sulfate combines with the lead (Pb) in both plates to form lead sulfate (PbS04)

Chemical reaction equation (Discharging) At Positive Plate: Pb02+ S042- + 4H+ + 2ePbS04 + 2H20 At Negative Plate: Pb + S042PbS04 + 2eNet reaction equation Pb02 + 2H2S04 + Pb 2PbS04 + 2H20

ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTION
3. DISCHARGED: In a fully discharged battery, both plates are covered with lead sulfate (PbSO4) and the electrolyte is diluted to mostly water (H2O).

ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTION
4. CHARGING: During charging, the chemical action is reversed. Sulfate (S042-) leaves the plates and combines with hydrogen (H+) to become sulfuric acid (H2SO4). Free oxygen (0) combines with lead (Pb) on the positive plate to form lead dioxide (Pb02). Gassing occurs as the battery nears full charge, and hydrogen bubbles out at the negative plates, oxygen at the positive.

Chemical reaction equation (Charging) At Positive Plate: PbS04 + 2H20 Pb02 + S042- + 4H+ + 2eAt Negative Plate: PbS04 + 2ePb + S042Net reaction equation 2PbS04 + 2H20 Pb02 + 2H2S04 + Pb

Battery Capacity Rating


Battery capacity is the amount of electrical energy the battery can deliver when fully charged. All six cell storage batteries have the same voltage but they may have a different capacity. Capacity is a measure of how much current it can produced and how long it can sustain this current.

4 methods of defining battery capacity:

1.Reserve capacity rating Defined as the time in minutes for the fully charged battery voltage to fall to 10.5 V with a constant load of 25 A at 80F (26.7'C) - how long the battery can sustain a 25 A discharge. Batteries used on various Toyota vehicles have RC ratings ranging from 55 to 115 minutes.

Battery Capacity Rating


2.Cold Cranking Amperes (CCA) The current that the battery will give at 0F (-17.8C) for a specified interval of time while maintaining a voltage of at least to an end voltage - three standard - BS (British Standard), DIN (German Standard) and SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers
Standard BS DIN SAE Duration 60 seconds 30 seconds 30 seconds End Voltaqe 8.4 volts 9.0 volts 7.2 volts Battery size CCA

Standard NS40ZAL
NS60 NS70 N70

JIS model 36B20


46B24 65026 65031 55023

275
325 420 445 355 360

Table 1 :Standard applied

55023 DIN

Table 2 : CCA battery rating

Battery Capacity Rating


3. AMP-HOURS (AH) Amp-Hour Rating specifies, the current the battery can provide for 20 hours at 80F (26.7C) while maintaining a voltage of at least 1.75 volts per cell (10.5 volts total for a 12- volt battery). For example, a battery that can deliver 4 amps for 20 hours is rated at 80 amp-hours (4 x 20 =80). Example: A 50Ah battery can expect to deliver 2.5 Ampere for 20 hours Batteries used on various vehicles have AH ratings ranging from 40 to 80 amp-hours. 4. POWER (WATTS) The battery's available cranking power may also be measured in watts. The Power Rating, in watts, is determined by multiplying the current available by the battery voltage at 0F (-1 7.8C). Batteries used on various vehicles have power ratings ranging from 2000 to 4000 watts. P=IV where ( P=power, I=current, V=voltage )

Internal Resistance

All batteries have internal resistance but it is very low. Eg; 0.005 ohm for a good condition battery and may be 0.05 ohm for a fair condition battery. The internal resistance of the battery causes the battery's output voltage to decrease As battery age, internal resistance increase V = E-Ir

V is actual terminal voltage, E theoretical voltage, r is internal resistance

Batteries Self-discharge

Over a period of time, a battery which is not used will gradually lose its charge due to several factors;

1.
2. 3.

Internal chemical reaction due to antimony deposits on negative plate. Leakage currents due to dirt and fume to form conducting path Sediment at the bottom of the battery

Self discharge at the rate of 0.2% to 1 % of the battery Ah per day, depending on the age of the battery and temperature.

To avoid high temperature discharge, Store in cool place Charge battery every month if not use Once fully discharge it may not fully recover even after recharge

Sulphation

Under normal discharging, fine crystals of lead sulphate are formed on the plates and by charging, these are convertible If battery is left discharge for long period, the crystal turns into coarse lead sulphate which are not easily convertible Sulphation causes the reduction in battery Ah and also slowdown the charging process causing the battery to become very hot

In minor sulphation cases, extended period of charging at low current will improve but in serious cases the battery is condemned due to internal short

Battery Maintenances & Services

Safety precautions :
Wear gloves and safety glasses. Remove rings, watches, other jewelry. Never use spark-producing tools near a battery. Never lay tools on the battery. When removing cables, always remove the ground cable first.

When connecting cables, always connect the ground cable last.


Do not use the battery ground terminal when checking for ignition spark. Be careful not to get electrolyte in your eyes or on your skin, the car finish, or your clothing. If you have to mix battery electrolyte, pour the acid into the water - not the water into the acid. Always follow the recommended procedures for battery testing and charging and for jump starting an engine.

Battery Maintenance
Battery Maintenance includes: 1. Making visual inspection of the battery 2. Cleaning the battery top, terminal and cable clamp 3. Testing the battery 4. Charging the battery

Battery Visual Inspection


Look for: 1. Electrolyte leakage 2. Electrolyte level 3. Crack in the case (may result from overtightening the hold-down clams) or top (may result from using wrong wrench) 4. Loose or missing hold-down clamps 5. Loose terminals (may result from overtightening the cable bolts)

Cleaning the Battery

Corrosion around the terminals and clamps can be cleaned by using a battery-terminal brush (with a solution of baking soda and water)

Battery Trouble Diagnosis

The two main causes of battery troubles are overcharging and undercharging

1. Overcharging Causes damage to the plate and shortens battery life. The high voltage can also damage other electrical and electronic components For a vent-cap battery - shown by frequent addition of water For a maintenance-free battery - shown by low electrolyte level Other signs of overcharging: 1. Voltage> 15 volt 2. Electrolyte dry too fast 3. Vigorous bubbles 4. Pungent smell 5. Surface always wet 6. Bulb always burnt 7. Battery bulge

Battery troubles diagnosis


2.Undercharging Possible causes include: 1. Charging system malfunction 2. Defective connections in charging system 3. Excessive load demands on battery 4. Defective battery 5. Self-discharge resulting from battery sitting idle for long periods 6. Excessive key-off current drain

Causes of Battery Failure

All batteries have a limited life, but some conditions can shorten that life.

1.ELECTROLYTE LEVEL: A low electrolyte level exposes active material, and any sulfate hardens and resists chemical action. Loss of electrolyte may be caused by a cracked case, poor maintenance (not adding water when needed). Severe overcharging which causes high internal heat and excessive gassing. Too much electrolyte is just as bad. Overfilling dilutes the electrolyte and spillage may corrode battery terminals.

Causes of Battery Failure


2.OVERCHARGING: Overcharging by the vehicle's charging system or separate battery charger causes excessive gassing and high internal heat. Too much gassing can wash active materials off the plates, as well as cause excessive water usage. Too much heat can oxidize the positive plate material and warp the plates. 3.UNDERCHARGING: A faulty charging system will not maintain the battery at full charge. Severe undercharging allows sulfate on the plates to become hard and impossible to remove by normal charging. The weak electrolyte freezes easier. The undercharged battery may fail to crank the engine.

4.CYCLING: Repeated cycling from fully charged to fully discharged and back - may cause loss of active material from the positive plates. This reduces battery capacity and its useful life.

Causes of Battery Failure


5. TEMPERATURE: High temperatures from overcharging or engine
heat can shorten battery life. Low temperatures can cause freezing of weak electrolyte. At 0F (-17.8C), a fully charged battery provides less than half its normal power. At the same time, the cold engine requires twice as much cranking power as it does with normal temperatures. The electrolyte in a fully charged battery will not freeze until -60F or lower, while the electrolyte in a fully discharged battery will freeze at + 18F. 6. VIBRATION: A battery must be mounted securely. Vibration can loosen connections, crack the case, and damage internal components.

Testing the Battery


Testing is done to determine whether a battery: 1. Is in good condition 2. Needs recharging 3. Is defective and should be discarded 4. To test the state of charge hydrometer for vent-cap battery charge indicator for maintenance-free battery 5. To test for performance - battery load test

Electrolyte SG Test : Hydrometer


Uses a hydrometer to measure the specific gravity of the electrolyte. By measuring the specific gravity of the electrolyte, it tell if the battery is fully charged, requires charging, or must be replaced. Read the specific gravity indicated on the float. Be sure the float is drifting free, not in contact with the sides of top of the barrel.

TEST RESULTS:

1. A fully charged battery will have specific gravity readings around 1.265. 2. Specific gravity readings below 1.225 usually mean the battery is run down and must be charged.

Open-Circuit Voltage Test

An accurate digital voltmeter is used to check the battery's open-circuit voltage:

1 . If the battery has just been charged, turn on the headlamps for one minute to remove any surface charge. 2. Turn headlamps off and connect the voltmeter across the battery terminals. 3. Read the voltmeter. A fully charged battery will have an open-circuit voltage of at least 12.6 volts. A dead battery will have an open-circuit voltage of less than 12.0 volts.

Battery Drain Test (Leak current)


Check for battery drain or leak current using an ammeter. Connect the ammeter in series between the battery negative terminal and ground cable connector. Common vehicles typically show less than .020 amp of current to maintain electronic memories. A reading of more than .035 amp is unacceptable. If the ammeter reads more than .035 amp, locate and correct the cause of excessive Excessive battery drain battery drain.

Charge-indicator Condition

It is a built-in hydrometer to show the condition and state of charge of the battery. A green indication means the battery is over 65% charged. If indicator is dark, the battery is less than 65% charged- the battery should be charge. If the indicator is light yellow or clear, the electrolyte level is low- if it happen to a maintenance-free battery, replace the battery.

Heavy-Load test

1. 2.

3. 4.

5.

After the battery passes the state of charge test, check for the performance by battery capacity test or battery load test. This measures terminal voltage while the battery is discharging at high rate. To perform the test; The load is applied using a tester (Sun VAT-40) that includes a voltmeter, an ammeter and a carbon-pile resistor. Load the battery by turning the Load Increase control until the ammeter reads 3 times the amp- hour (AH) rating or onehalf the cold-cranking ampere (CCA) rating. After 15 seconds, read the voltage and remove the load. Battery voltage should read 9.6 volts or higher. If below the minimum, recharge the battery and retest it. If fails again, discard the battery

Battery Charging

A battery charger must be used if the alternator cannot charge the battery adequately due to long period of no use.

Slow Charging A slow charger feeds small amount of current into the battery. Charging time is longer (about 12 hours at 10 amps). The chemical action inside the battery is improved and the active materials are plated back on the battery plates better.

Fast Charging /Boost Charging A fast charger forces a high current flow into the battery for rapid recharging. Fast charging allow engine starting in a matter of minutes. A high charging current can be used below the gassing voltage. If exceeded, the battery starts to gas and leads to water loss in battery. Done for emergency case only because it can cause damage to battery

FACTORS AFFECTING CHARGING

Five factors affect battery charging;

FACTORS AFFECTING CHARGING


1. TEMPERATURE: As the temperature decreases the electrolyte resists charging. A cold battery will take more time to charge; a warm battery, less time. Never attempt to charge a frozen battery. 2. STATE-OF-CHARGE: The condition of the battery's active materials will affect charging. A battery that is severely discharged will have hard sulfate crystals on its plates. The vehicle's charging system may charge at too high of a rate to remove such sulfates.

3. PLATE AREA: Small plates are charged faster than large plates. When sulfation covers most of the plate area, the charging system may not be able to charge the battery.
4. IMPURITIES: Dirt and other impurities in the electrolyte increase charging difficulty. 5. GASSING: Hydrogen and oxygen bubbles form at the plates during charging. As these bubble out, they wash away active material, cause water loss, and increase charging difficulty.

Charging rate

Jump-starting
Proper connections in jump starting a dead battery with a booster battery to prevent sparks. 1. First, connect cable(red) to the two positive terminals. 2. Then, connect one end of the jumper cable (black) to the negative terminal of the booster battery. 3. Connect the other end to a good ground away from the dead battery. 4. If a spark occurs, it won't be near the battery.

Battery Storage

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

For new battery;


Unfilled: unlimited Filled, conventional: 3 (max 6) months Filled, completely maintenance-free: 18 months Battery must be stored in a cool and dry place and in a good state of charge Do not stack batteries on top of each other without additional support, because the weight can collapse the case and the plates in the bottom battery will bend.

Removing and Replacing Battery


To remove a battery:
1. 2.

3.
4. 5.

Disconnect the ground cable from the battery Loosen the clamp bolt then pull the clamp from the terminal If the clamp sticks, use a battery-clamp puller Disconnect the positive cable from the battery Remove the battery

To install the battery: 1. Do not reverse the terminal connections 2. Reconnect the positive cable first then the ground cable

3. Tighten the hold-down clamps but do not


over-tighten

THE END

Any question?

Assignment

Differentiate between battery slow charging and fast charging, and give an advantages and disadvantages of each methods.