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# Well Log Analysis.

CIT-ChE

Log-Interpretation

## Basic Concepts of Log Analysis

Contents

1. Introduction 2. Lithology 3. Porosity 4. Water Saturation 5. Permeability 6. Hydrocarbon Type and Pay Counting

Introduction
The basic log analysis:
Identification of porous and permeable reservoir rocks Porosity estimation Water saturation calculation Differentiation between oil and gas bearing sections

## Features of Well Logging

Data Acquisition Logs Application
Theory,metho d and experience Formation Evaluation,et c.

Signal Excited

TOOLs

Different Logs

Physics Fields

Many sorts, much data High Vertical and bad horizontal Resolution Badly affected by hole Need integration with other information

## The Fundamental Questions

What kind of rock is present? Are any hydrocarbon present? If so, should a test be run and the well completed? What kind of hydrocarbon is present: oil, gas or condensate? How much is there (i.e., net pay, porosity, Sw, reserves)?

Track 1: Vsh, K Track 2: e , Vf in pore space. Track 3: Sw Track 4: lithology, pore space.

Lithology

The first step of log analysis is to determine the Lithology profile (and mineral content analysis). By Lithology identification, the log analysts can concentrate on the sections containing potential reservoir rock.

## The Criteria to Use for Sifting

Reservoir Rocks
Low GR Good SP development Relative separation of resistivity curves

Non-Reservoir Rocks
High GR Flat SP Resistivity curves stack

Porosity
The porosity of a formation is defined as the volume of the pore space divided by the volume of the rock containing the pore space. This definition ignores the question of whether or not the pores are interconnected.

Measurement of Porosity

Porosity may be measured by a variety of methods including: Wireline logging Core analysis; You should not be surprised when porosity estimates from different techniques do not agree.

Water Saturation-Sw
Water saturation is defined as the volume fraction of the pore space occupied by water (see following figure).
Two phases:
1=So+Sw Three phases: 1=Sg+So+Sw

Permeability (K)
Permeability is a measure of how easily fluids can flow through a formation. While porosity is a static property of a rock, permeability is a dynamic one. If flow is laminar then Darcys relation can be used to define K in terms of flow rate (Q), area (A), length (L), Pressure differential (P), and fluid viscosity () such that: k=(QL)/(PA)

Measurement of Permeability
There are many ways to estimate permeability, including:
One relies upon empirical correlations between porosity and irreducible water saturation

Pressure buildup from DST Pressure draw-down and buildup from FMT Log analysis Core analysis

## Hydrocarbon Type and Pay Counting

Hydrocarbon Type:
To distinguish between oil and gas, neutrondensity log leave its fingerprint on the neutron/density overlay (see the plot on next page).

Pay Counting:
Not all of pay section will produce hydrocarbons. There are low porosity shale streaks which have no permeability, and there are sections at the base of the interval that will produce water.

## What do our clients want to know?

We have: Conventional logging data We can offer:

## Reservoir Property Calculation Flow Chart

Input logging data Environmental correction Generate Lithology Profile

## Calculate porosity, saturation and permeability

Calculate hydrocarbon bearing zone thickness Output results

## t = tf * + t1 *V1+ t2 * V2 + t3 * V3 b = f * + 1 * V1 + 2 * V2+ 3 * V3 N = f* + 1 * V1 + 2 * V2 + 3 * V3 1 = + V1 + V2 +V3

V1 V2 V3

Porosity Calculation

## (tc tma ) Cp(tf tma )

1. By sonic: S =

(ma b ) Vsh(ma sh) 2. By density: D = ma b 3. By neutron: N , use directly or need lithology correcting. 4. By 3-porosity crossplot, which can also generate Lithology Profile. (As shown in last page) 5. By core analysis,, MRIL or other methods.

Porosity( )

Resistivit y

I Rt R0 b S

n w

ab nS =( Rw
w

F R0 Rw a m

m Rt

## 0.054*4 Perm= Swi

Kint=104.4+A+3.0*lg -2.0lg(1- )

So = 1 -- Sw

Other transforms

Other transforms

Saturation

Permeability

Softwares

## Log, Mudlog, Welltest, Seismic, Geological

Geological Problems:
- Petroleum Geology - Petroleum Engineering

- Basic Geology