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# Assumptions and Justifications in Engineering Mechanics

If not otherwise mentioned, assume Justification Supports and joints are Appropriate lubrication in frictionless. real life. Structure elements weightless. are Elements will be designed around the reactive force in them with a Factor of Safety The line of action of the Surface of contact is reactive forces pass infinitesimal. Planar through the centre distribution of the forces. (point/line) of the element. Does not incur major errors.
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Types of supports
1. Simple support: If the element (say, a beam) simply rests on a support. Reaction (R): right angles to the beam Movement: Beam can execute linear motion as well as rotate about its axis.
R

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## Types of supports contd.

2. Roller support: (a) The element (say, a beam) rests on a roller support. Reaction (R): right angles to the beam Movement: Beam can execute linear motion as well as rotate about its axis.

R
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2. Roller support: (b) The element is supported on rollers moving between guides. Reaction (R): normal to the support in both directions.

Movement: Beam can execute linear motion as well as rotate about its axis.
R

R
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3. Hinged support:
Movement: Element cannot make any linear motion in any direction. It can rotate about the support. Support does not develop any resisting moment but reactions to keep the support stationary. The reactions can be resolved into its components for analysis.
RH Rv
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4. Fixed support:

Movement: Element cannot make any linear motion in any direction. It cannot rotate about the support. Support develops resisting moment and reactions to keep the support stationary.
RH Rv M

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## Step by step guide for solving a problem in Statics

1. Assess the problem for forces and external loads. 2. Decide on a reference frame and its location on the system.

3. Study the supports and joints. Make a mental note of the reactive support being provided.
4. Carefully note the problem for the unknown(s) to solve for. 5. Make appropriate assumptions.
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## Step by step guide for solving a problem in Statics contd.

5. Draw the FBD: free body diagram. i. Remove the supports ii. Replace them by reactive forces iii.The sense of these forces according to your judgement. can be

iv. There can be more than one free body. 6. Apply equilibrium equations to each free body. Here, the sense of all forces should be w.r.t. the reference frame.
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## Step by step guide for solving a problem in Statics contd.

7. For complicated notations. systems, use vector

8. For reactive forces, good idea to show the components resolved in the appropriate reference frame. 9. For final results, draw the FBD of the entire system with all the external forces and unknowns with their correct senses. Highlight the unknowns.
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