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Safety In Chemical Process Industries

Why does it matter?

Safe working protects:
You Other lab workers Cleaners Visitors Your work

Control Measures (in order of preference)

Use a less risky substance 2. Use a safer form of that substance (eg solution instead of powder)

Control Measures (in order of preference)

3. Totally enclose the

process (eg a glovebox) 4. Partially enclose the process (eg with a fume cupboard) 5. Ensure good general ventilation

Control Measures (in order of preference)

6. Safe systems of work
7. Reduce exposure

times, increase distance, reduce volumes 8. Personal protective equipment (as a last resort
for primary protection)

What are the general hazards in a laboratory?

Fire Breakage of glassware Sharps Spillages Pressure equipment & gas cylinders Extremes of heat & cold Chemical hazards Biological hazards Radiation

And many more!

First Aid
All laboratory workers should

undergo simple first aid training

For ALL chemical splashes, wash

with plenty of water for 10 minutes Control bleeding with direct pressure, avoiding any foreign bodies such as glass

Report all accidents to your

supervisor or departmental safety officer

Abhinav Jain

Conc. HCL

Safety Programs
Attitude Fundamentals

Time You

Five Major Disasters:

Bhopal Gas Tragedy
Flixborough accident The Seveso disaster

The Texas Tragedy

IOC Depot Fire(Jaipur)

Bhopal Gas Tragedy

Amongst the worst Industrial Disasters of its time.
Occurrence: 3rd December 1984. Place of occurrence: Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. Company: Union Carbide Corporation. Chemical: Methyl Isocyanate (27 tons)

Toxic Materials in Soil and Water

25 Years after the Bhopal Gas Disaster

Changes Made in India
Changes made in USA

Flixborough Explosion

The Flixborough disaster was an explosion at a chemical plant

close to the village of Flixborough England on 1 st June 1974.

28 workers were killed and 36 injured on the site. 53 people were injured off-site. 1821 houses were damaged.

Lessons The accident occurred due to:

Poor Process Design Lack of Understanding of Mechanical Loading of

Process Equipment


Simplified flow diagram of cyclohexane oxidation plant after March 1974 (Whittingham, 2005)

(Whittingham, 2005)

The Seveso accident

Occurrence: July 10,1976 Place of Occurrence: Seveso,Milan,Italy Company: Icmesa Chemical Company Chemical:TCDD (2,3,7,8tetrachlorodibenzoparadioxin)

10 square miles were contaminated
250 cases of chloracne were reported Over600 people were evacuated

2000 people were given blood tests

Trichlorophenol reactor went out of control
Heavy Rain

Preventive Measures
Proper containment systems
Fundamental engineering safety principles

The Texas Tragedy

Occurrence: October 23,1989 Place of Occurrence: Pasadena,Texas,US High Density Polythene Plant

23 Deaths
314 injuries Capital losses of over $715 million

Product taken off valve was

removed DEMCO was open Lockout device was removed No permanent combustible gas detection and alarm system was located in the region of the reactors.

Polyethylene plant settling leg and product takeoff system

Preventive Measures
A double-block-and-bleed valving arrangement should

have been used Provision was made for the development, implementation, and enforcement of effective permit systems

IOC Depo Fire (Jaipur)

Occurred:Oct 29th PlaceofOccurrence:Sitapura Copmany: IOCL

12 people died
Over 200 people get injured Half million people were evacuted

Leakage in Valve


What Risk Analysis Can Do?

Helps In
Forecasting any unwanted situation Estimating damage potential of such

situation Decision making to control such situation Evaluating effectiveness of control measures

Risk Analysis
Definition of Risk Analysis : Risk analysis is the process of gathering

data and synthesizing information to develop an understanding of the risk of a particular enterprise. Definition of QRA : QRA is the art and science of developing and understanding numerical estimates of the risk (i.e., combinations of the expected frequency and consequences of potential accidents) associated with a facility or operation. Risk analysis usually involves several of the five risk management activities shown in next slide.

Elements of Risk Management

Process of Risk Analysis

Why perform QRA ?

There may be either of the two reasons to perform QRA:
First, you choose to use QRA because you believe you will gain a

better understanding of risk that will aid decision making. A second possibility is that, in some cases, QRA may be required by law, so you choose to do one. If you are performing QRA because you want to, then there may me several reasons: Underlying Motivation (It is simply a perception that a problem exists) Concerns (You concerns the safety & economic issue) Need (need for greater risk understanding) Information Requirement (You want to get the information by the means of QRA)

Information Available From QRA

The results of the QRA can be formulated and used on two bases:
An absolute basis A relative basis


An absolute basis:
To determine whether the level of safety at a facility meets risk tolerance criteria If not, then change the faculty until it meets the tolerance criteria

A relative basis:
Shows difference between the levels of safety of one or more cases of interest It can be used to determine the most efficient way to improve safety

Classical Limitations of QRA

Completeness Accuracy/Uncertainty