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The Lalit Jaipur Jagatpura Road, Near Jawahar Circle, Jaipur

The project is under the contractor Shapoorji Pallonji & Co Ltd

Contemporary and luxurious, this 244-room property

is being built on 12141 sqmts. This building comprises of 2 underground floors , 1 ground floor and 7 floors. The architect for the hotel is Mr Achal Kataria. Commencement of work has already begun on April 05, 2007. the property will be operational in 2012.

We did our project under Project In Charge Azam

Khan and Engineer In Charge Saurabh Bansal.

What we have learnt at site are: Material and material testing

Casting of building components like slab, Beam ,

column Adjustment and type of shuttering & scaffolding office work including estimation of materials and preparation of Bar bending schedule.


CEMENT: It is a substance, which acts as a binding

agent for building construction materials. AGGREGATES: Aggregate is the material which actually takes the load and are mixed with the cement to have concrete. These are of 2 types, fine and coarse aggregates. Fine aggregates are called sand too. REINFORCING STEEL: Reinforcing steel consists of bars, usually circular in cross-section.(Grade of steel Fe-415 )

Materials continue..
Diameter: 8, 10, 12,16,25,32 mm diameter bars are used

in :beam, column and slabs. CONCRETE: It is an artificially made material obtained by mixing aggregates, cement and water in some specific proportion. In columns use was from site concrete. In beams and slabs use was from ready mix concrete.

Concrete were used of type

Nominal concrete mix (in the PCC only)

and it was of grade M15. Design concrete mix :-at site prepared (in columns and footings only) and it was of grade M30 -at plant prepared(in slabs and beams only) and it was of grade M25

Nominal concrete
It was of grade M15 at site. This method of proportioning of materials for concrete is not generally being practiced.
S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 Grade M-10 M-15 M-20 M-25 M-30 Nominal Mix 1:3:6 1:2:4 1:1.5:3 1:1.5:3 1:1:2 Uses Foundations and mass concrete Nominal RCC work Water retaining structures Long span arches Prestressed concrete

Design concrete mix (at site prepared)

It was of grades M30
Composition used for grades M30 cement-

100 kg sand 159 kg aggregates-206.4 kg (20 mm) 137.6 kg (10 mm) water46.6 liter

Mini Batching plant

Plants used at site was of type mini Batching plant. Reading or calculation was done by looking at different

parts of machine as scale for matching wt of sand and concrete.

Main parts of mini batching plant:-

-mixing drum -feeding system -volume batching machine

Design concrete mix (at plant prepared)

It is also called Ready Mix Concrete (RMC).
It was delivered from ACC RMC plant.

Design concrete mix (at plant prepared) continues..

Some basic quality of RMC:-

It should be delivered in between a proper time given by plant provider 2. It should maintain proper quality as that required at the site. 3. Different kind of admixture should be used to maintain the concrete.

Admixture used at site was Krystol Baricote

Test done on sand at site

Sand is a naturally occurring granular material. SIEVE ANALYSIS:-5 kg sand taken for sample - sieves were arranged in their decreasing order of mess size in downward direction.

Done according to codeand specific zone I, II , III

Results are shown in the table
Sr. No . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Sieve size 10 mm 4.75 mm 2.36 mm 1.18 mm 600 m 300 m 150 m Retaine d weight 120 150 100 180 470 880 100 % Retaine d 6.0 7.5 5.0 9.0 23.5 44.0 5.0 Cumulative % retained 6.0 13.5 18.5 27.5 51.0 95.0 100 % passi ng 94.0 86.5 81.5 72.5 49 5 0 Gradi ng 100 100 90-100 70-100 40-100 5-70 0-15





In this case, first of all we have to sieving of sand Then calculate cumulative wt retained on each sieve Then calculate % cumulative wt retained on each sieve. Now calculate % passing through sieve and check whether it fall in the appropriate grading or not. If it does not fall in appropriate category, process of mixing different sand proportion is done

Compressive strength test (For cement )

Cube size use for cement test was 50 sq cms.
mix of proportion 1:3 is

prepared for cubes Machine used for testing were of type hand operated.

Grade of cement was 43

Test done on aggregate at site (Sieve Analysis)

Sr. Sieve Size Retaine % Cumulativ No. d Retaine e% weight d Retained weight 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 20mm 16mm 12.5mm 10mm 4.75mm pan Total sum 560 1760 2450 1040 170 20 9.30 29.3 40.83 17.33 2.83 0 9.30 38.63 79.46 96.79 99.62 100 423.8 % passing 90.7 61.37 20.54 3.21 0.38 0


90-100 90-100 70-90 25-35 0-10

Here is a result of sieve test on a 20 m aggregate and test was not according to gradation required thats why proportion with 10 mm aggregate was done.

Test use for concrete at site

Slump test :1. Used for the measurement of a property of fresh

concrete 2. The test is an empirical test Compressive strength:1. To determine the characteristic strength of the concrete 2. Very important to the acceptance of in-situ concrete work since it demonstrates the strength of the design mix.

Compressive test
Moulds were of size was 15cms

Machine used was of

type hand operated. Style of putting cube was perpendicular to the filling style. Test was done after 7 days and 28 days.

Slump test
The slump test result is a measure of the behavior of a compacted inverted cone of concrete under the action of gravity. It measures the consistency or the wetness of concrete Requirement of apparatus of specification:a) Bottom diameter : 20cm b) Top diameter : 10cm c) Height : 30cm d) temping rod of 16mm diameter, 0.6m long

i. ii. iii.

Used for grades of concrete M25 and M20 Not used for PCC work and its concrete M15. Done according to code IS 1199 .

Slumps are of three types.

Collapse slump-In a collapse slump the concrete collapses completely. II. Shear slump-In a shear slump the top portion of the concrete shears off and slips sideways. III. True slump-In a true slump the concrete simply subsides, keeping more or less to shape.

Slump values according to code.

Placing condition Degree of workability Slump (in mm)
Blinding concrete; Shallow sections; Pavements using pavers Mass concrete; Lightly reinforced sections in slabs, beams, walls, columns; Floors; Hand placed pavements; Canal lining; Strip footings Heavily reinforced sections in slabs, beams, walls, columns; Slip form work; Pumped concrete Trench fill; In-situ piling Termite concrete Very low <25





75-100 High Very high 100-150 >150

Concrete has all the three phases solids, water & air In order to make the concrete impervious & attain its

maximum strength it is required It has been observed that 5% voids reduce the strength by about 30% and 10% voids reduce the strength by over 50%. There was 2 types of vibrators at site:: Needle vibrators:generally use for 2-3 mins And for all members like column, slab, beam. Plate vibrators:Rarely used but important for surface smoothening of nominal concrete mixes and specially PCC.

Photos showing types of vibrator and there working process.

Scaffolding and Formwork

At work we have used Double Scaffolding and at some

portions suspended scaffolding. It was made of steel and was movable in another part with their adjustable parts

Formwork continues..
We got acquainted by the form work of column, beam, slab

and stairs specially. They all were made of plywood of 8mm thickness. Cleaning and treatment of forms:- very clean surface of shuttering is applied with oil. Design:- design is done according to requirement of member shape and size Erection of formwork Verticality of the structure:- vertically and its laying is checked by leveling instrument. Stripping time or removal of formwork:- it is done according to the code IS456:2000

Table shown for stripping time for different members..

Structural Component Footings Sides of beams, columns, lintels, wall Age 1 day 2 days

Underside of beams spanning less than 14 days 6m Underside of beams spanning over 6m 21 days Underside of slabs spanning less than 4m 7 days Underside of slabs spanning more than 14 days 4m Flat slab bottom 21 days

Foundation use at our site were of two types:1. Strap footing:- A strap footing or a cantilever footing is one of the types of combined footing. It consists of an isolated footing of two columns connected by a beam called shape beam. These are better suited when one of the columns is on the property line (for complete building below all the columns) 2. Raft footing:- When the soil is having very low bearing capacity and or columns loads are heavy. In such a case raft or mat foundation of a solid reinforced concrete slab covering entire area beneath the structure and supporting all columns are provided. (for very rare spaces below lift and stair case)

Foundation continues.

A beam is a structural member that is capable of withstanding load primarily by resisting bending. The bending force induced into the material of the beam as a result of the external loads, own weight, span and external reactions to these loads is called bending moment.
RCC beams are cast in cement concrete reinforced with

steel bars. Beams take up compressive and add rigidity to the structure

Beams used at site were of type doubly reinforced:Firstly reinforcement of beam is done. Main reinforcement is done and proper curtailment is done according to requirement of design of beam. Stirrups and crank of steel is done according to space requirement for stirrups. Finally casting of beam is done by applying a needle vibrator.

Beams continues.

Building Slab
A Reinforced Concrete Slab is the one of the most important component in a building. It is a structural element of modern buildings. Slabs are supported on columns and beams. Slabs provided at the site were of type Two Ways Slab and process was as on:-

Firstly shuttering is applied for slab construction Both side of reinforcement is done according to requirement of design III. At proper spacing, chairs are to be provided to keep reinforcement in position. IV. Finally concreting is done according to supply of material and level of concrete is adjusted by putting a bar of steal with flag on it and needle vibrator is continuously applied with it.
I. II.

Building slab continues.

Sunken Portion

Sunken portion is used only for the toilet slab of building because we have to apply pipes and traps at that portion. This portion has same kind of configuration as that of ordinary slabs. This portion is surrounded by slab beams. Some times ,for this portion MATKA fillings to be done. waterproofing of the Sunken slab is done before the floor finish.

Reinforcement of structural members

Reinforcement is to be done according to the requirement of designer. Reinforcement of members is to be done , initially by putting chairs or spacers in between. Splice of steel is done by looking at the rules of code and it should decided as 50 time of diameter. Important consideration is given to anchorage. Stirrups, cranks and other adjust ment are to be done according to test requirement, should have proper enclosure and not to be opened by application of concrete in the member.

Curing of members
It is Used to include maintenance of a favorable environment for the continuation of chemical reactions:-

Retention of moisture within, or supplying moisture to the concrete from an external source II. Protection against extremes of temperature III. For complete hydration and hardening to take place.
Two ways of doing this process

continuous sprays or pounding of water

continuously saturated covering of sacking, canvas, hessian

or other

absorbent materials

Walls - Water should be sprinkled from the top such that it covers the

whole area of the wall and it should be remain wet. Slab - Pounding should be done on the slab by constructing bunds of mortar. Beams and columns - The beams and columns can be maintained wet by tying gunny bags around the periphery and by maintaining it wet always.

Office work
Estimation of materials:-

Concrete ii. Steel iii. Brick work Calculation of shuttering surface. Preparation of BBS (bar bending schedule)

For steel estimation

-Estimation of steel is very important since it is very costlier material. -It is directly calculated from the drawings given by designer. -Wt of steel is calculated by applying formula dxd/162 (kg/m). -Sample of table type is shown in figure.
particular Dia of bar No of bar Cut Length Total length

For concrete work

- concrete is calculated in terms of volume -it is taken by calculating length, breadth and depth of member(all in meters) -for certain things, deduction are to be made in the calculations. -From this, different material is calculated since we know proportion of all the constituents of concrete -a sample is shown in the figure.
particular No. length width depth Total remark

For brick work

-Size of a traditional brick is given by 230x115x75 cubic mm. -Thickness of wall is 115 or 230 mm. -Only length and height of wall is calculated for having area of brick wall -Proper deductions are to be made for calculations in case of windows and doors -Here a sample of table is given for calculations
particular length height total Remark

Calculation of shuttering
since cost of shuttering plays a very important role in overall cost of building thats why its calculation makes a vital role for civil engg. -It is specified by the thickness of the plywood. -Area is to be calculated for shuttering calculations. -For side faces length and depth is to be given and for horizontal faces length and width is to be given. -Here is a sample given for calculations of shuttering.
particular No length (Quantity) width depth Total area Remark (thickness of plywood)

BBS ( bar bending schedule)

It is calculation of steel as well calculation of reinforcement but the difference is only that in this case we have to calculate the actual steel placed in the position. -This work is done on some authenticated papers. -Cutting and change of reading is not to be done in any of the case. If have done so, signature is to be made by site in charge at that place. -On these papers, shape of steel i.e. Any crank and anchorages are to be shown with actual values. -Finally this work is to be replaced on MS excel file and all authentic papers are to be reserved as well.
Particular Dia of bar No (Qt) Cut Total Bar bending/ bar used at location length length

Typical BBS

Thank you !