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Variables

are qualities, properties, or characteristics of person, things, or situations that change or vary. Variables are also concepts at different levels of abstraction that are concisely defined to promote their measurement or manipulation within a study.

Variables are classified based on their nature, actions, and effects on the variables. Some variables are manipulated and some are controlled. Some are identified but not measured. Others are measured with refined measurement devices.

INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT VARIABLES II. RESEARCH VARIABLES OR CONCEPTS III. DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES IV. EXTRANEOUS VARIABLES
I.

An

independent variables is a stimulus or activity that is manipulated or varied by the researcher to create an affect on the dependent variable. It is also called as treatment or experimental variable.

Dependent

variable is the outcome or response due to the effect of the independent variable, which researcher wants to predict or explain. Changes in the dependent variables are presumed to be caused by the independent variable.

Oxygen

inhalation by nasal cannula of upto 6LPM does not affect oral temperature. In the above stated null hypothesis. The independent variable is Oxygen inhalation by nasal cannula uptp 6 LPM. Dependent variable was oral temperature.

Qualitative

studies and some quantitative (descriptive and correlation) studies involves the investigation of research variables or concepts. Research variables are concepts are the qualities, properties or characteristics identified in the research purpose and objectives or questions that are observed or measured in a study.

Research

variables or concepts are used when the intent of the study is to observe or measure variables or concepts as they exist in a natural setting without implementation of a treatment. Thus no independent variables are manipulated and no cause and effect relationships are examined.

An

exploratory study on factors contributing to sleep disturbance among patients admitted in selected intensive care units of AIIMS of new delhi. In this research study, factors contributing to sleep disturbance is a research variable, which is observed in natural setting without manipulating it.

Extraneous

variables present in all studies and can affect the measurement of study variables and the relationship among these variables. Extraneous variables are primary concern in quantitative studies because they can interfere with obtaining a clear understanding of the relational or causal dynamics within these studies.

Variable is extraneous only when it can be assumed to influence the dependent variable. It introduces noise but doesn't systematically bias the results. Some examples are gender, ethnicity, social class, genetics, intelligence, age. Researchers attempt to recognize and control as many extraneous variables as possible in quassi experimental and experimental studies and specific designs have been developed to control the influence of these variables.

Demographic

variables are characteristics or attributes of subjects that are collected to describe the samples. Some common demographic variables are age, education, gender, ethnic origin, marital status, income, job classification, and medical diagnosis. When a study is completed, the demographic data are analyzed to provide a picture of the samples and are called sample characteristics.

VARIABLES CATEGORICAL VARIABLES ATTRIBUTE VARIABLES

CONTINUOUS

Variables

such as height or weight can have a range of different values, they are known to as continuous variables.

Variables

are often have inherent characteristics, such as age, blood type, health beliefs. Such variables are known as attribute variables.

Some

variables have discrete values such as pregnant/not pregnant, single/married/divorced/wido wed and male/female these variables are called as categorical variables.