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It is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions, or emotions by two or more persons.

The transmission of the senders ideas to the receiver and the receivers feedback or reaction to the sender constitute the communication cycle.

Sender Input

Letter, Fax, Phone call, E-mail, etc.

Receiver Output

Feedbac k

Written Communication Oral Communication Face-to-face Communication Visual Communication Audio-Visual Communication Computer based Communication


Includes letters, circulars, memos, reports, forms and manuals, etc. Everything that has to be written and transmitted in the written form falls in the area of written communication.

Written communication

Time consuming Expensive Quick clarification

Accurate Precise

Permanent record
Legal document Can reach large no. of people

not possible

simultaneously. Helps to fix responsibility

Includes face-to-face conversation, Conversation over phone, radio, interviews, group discussion, meetings, conferences, seminars, etc.

Oral communication

Saves time Saves money More forceful Conveys shades of meaning Immediate clarification Immediate feedback Can be informal More effective with groups

Demerits Not possible for distant people in the absence of mechanical devices Unsuitable for lengthy messages Messages cannot be retained for long No legal validity Greater chances of misunderstanding

Types of Communication
Downward Communication Upward Communication Horizontal Communication Grapevine Consensus


Formal channel of communication Upward Downward Horizontal Communication Informal channel

Grapevine & Consensus


Barriers to Communication
Wrong choice of medium Physical barriers

Semantic barriers
Socio-psychological barriers


1. Wrong choice of Medium

Improper media

2. Physical barriers
Noise Time & distance.

3. Semantic barriers i) Assign different meaning to the same word or

use different words for the same meaning, or
ii) Words carry different nuances, shades or flavors to the transmitter & the receiver.

4. Socio

Psychological barriers includes;

Attitudes & Opinions Emotions Closed minds Status consciousness Source of communication Inattentiveness Faulty transmission Poor retention Unsolicited communication


Principles of Communication
Clarity Completeness Conciseness Consideration Courtesy Correctness

These principles are fundamental importance and relevant to all media but they are most important to written communication.


Clarity : 1.Clarity of thought : Communication must be clear about 3 points: 1.What is the objective of communication ? 2.What is to be communicated ? 3.Which medium will prove to be the most suitable for this purpose ? Clarity of expression ; 1. Use of simple words E.g.: Avoid them Use them Demonstrate Show Terminate End 2. Use single words for long phrases E.g.: despite the fact that although will you be kind enough please

2. Use single words for long phrases E.g.: despite the fact that although Will you be kind enough please 3.Avoid double entry E.g.: previous experience during the year 1997 my personal opinion period of one week revert back end result actual fact

experience during 1997 my opinion one week revert result fact


1. See if you have answered all the questions 2. Check for 5 W questions who, what, where, when and why

1. Only relevant facts 2. No repetition 3. Proper organization of the message

1. Avoid gender bias 2. Emphasis positive, pleasant facts 3. Write only what you sincerely feel to be correct.

1. Answer / acknowledge the letter promptly 2. Do not use irritating / offensive expression 3. Apologize sincerely for any omissions 4. Thank profusely for any favours

1.Give correct facts 2.Appropriate time 3.In a suitable style.

As professional, you receive or create many types of documents that support your work so
What you write will ultimately define you as a professional to your colleagues and superior 2. Match the appropriate communication method 3. Eliminate excessive or unnecessary communication 4. Mastering these skills will improve your ability and enhance your career.


Communication Vs Personality 1. What you write and how you write it could reflect a positive and negative image. 2. Sloppy and / or poorly written communications could be perceived as a lack of communication.


Keep it short..... Dont write

If there is any points that you require explanation or any further particulars you required, we shall be glad to furnish such additional details as may be required by telephone


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