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DASAR-DASAR

METODE KUANTITATIF


Oleh :
EDY SUHARTONO


Subject
Differentiation
Integral
Differential Equation

WHAT IS A FUNCTION?


LINEAR FUNCTIONS


Slope and Rate of Change


Linear Functions in General

Which of the following tables of values could
represent a linear function?


RATES OF CHANGE


The Derivative at a Point


THE DERIVATIVE FUNCTION

Alternative Notations for the Derivative
Basic Differentiation Rules
1.
Ex
.
2.
( ) ( )
0 a constant
d
c c
dx
=
( ) 5
( ) 0
f x
f x
=
'
=
Ex
.
( )
( )
1
a real number
n n
d
x nx n
dx

=
7
6
( )
( ) 7
f x x
f x x
=
'
=
Basic Differentiation Rules
3.
Ex
.
4.
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) a constant
d d
cf x c f x c
dx dx
=
8
( ) 3 f x x =
Ex
.
( ) ( ) | | | |
( ) ( )
d d d
f x g x f x g x
dx dx dx
( =

12
( ) 7 f x x = +
( )
7 7
( ) 3 8 24 f x x x
'
= =
11 11
( ) 0 12 12 f x x x
'
= + =
More Differentiation Rules
5.
Ex
.
( )( )
3 7 2
( ) 2 5 3 8 1 f x x x x x = + + +
( ) ( ) | | | |
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
d d d
f x g x f x g x g x f x
dx dx dx
( = +

Product Rule
( )( ) ( )( )
2 7 2 3 6
( ) 3 2 3 8 1 2 5 21 16 f x x x x x x x x
'
= + + + + +
9 7 6 4 2
30 48 105 40 45 80 2 x x x x x x = + + +
Derivative of
first
Derivative of
Second
More Differentiation Rules
6.
( )
| | | |
| |
2
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( )
( )
d d
g x f x f x g x
f x
d
dx dx
dx g x
g x
+
(
=
(

Quotient Rule
| | | |
lo hi hi lo
hi

lo lo lo
d d
d
dx

(
=
(

Sometimes remembered as:
More Differentiation Rules
6.
Ex
.
2
3 5
( )
2
x
f x
x
+
=

Quotient Rule
(cont.)
( )
( )
( )
2
2
2
3 2 2 3 5
( )
2
x x x
f x
x
+
'
=

( )
2
2
2
3 10 6
2
x x
x

=

Derivative of
numerator
Derivative of
denominator
More Differentiation Rules
7. The Chain Rule
( )
If ( ) ( ) then h x g f x =
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) h x g f x f x
' ' '
=
Note: h(x) is a composite function.
( )
If ( ) with ( ) then y h x g u u f x = = =
dy dy du
dx du dx
=
Another
Version:

Copyright (c) 2003
Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
More Differentiation Rules
The General Power Rule:
| | ( )
If ( ) ( ) , real then
n
h x f x n =
| |
1
( ) ( ) ( )
n
h x n f x f x

' '
=
Ex
.
( )
1 2
2 2
( ) 3 4 3 4 f x x x x x = + = +
( )
( )
1 2
2
1
( ) 3 4 6 4
2
f x x x x

'
= + +
2
3 2
3 4
x
x x
+
=
+
The Chain Rule leads to

Copyright (c) 2003
Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Chain Rule Example
7
2 1
( )
3 5
x
G x
x

| |
=
|
+
\ .
( ) ( )
( )
6
2
3 5 2 2 1 3
2 1
( ) 7
3 5
3 5
x x
x
G x
x
x
| |
+

| |
| '
=
|
|
+
\ .
+
\ .
( )
( )
( )
6
6
2 8
91 2 1
2 1 13
( ) 7
3 5
3 5 3 5
x
x
G x
x
x x

| |
'
= =
|
+
\ .
+ +
Ex
.

Copyright (c) 2003
Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Chain Rule Example
5 2 8 2
, 7 3 y u u x x = = + Ex
.
dy dy du
dx du dx
=
( )
3 2 7
5
56 6
2
u x x = +
( ) ( )
3 2
8 2 7
5
7 3 56 6
2
x x x x = + +
( )( )
3 2
7 8 2
140 15 7 3 x x x x = + +
Sub in for u
Higher Derivatives
The second derivative of a function f is the derivative of the
derivative of f at a point x in the domain of the first derivative.
Derivative Notations
( )
n
f
f
'''
f
''
(4)
f
Second
Third
Fourth
nth
2
2
d y
dx
3
3
d y
dx
4
4
d y
dx
n
n
d y
dx
Example of Higher Derivatives
5 3
( ) 3 2 14 f x x x = + Given find
( ). f x
'''
4 2
( ) 15 6 f x x x
'
=
3
( ) 60 12 f x x x
''
=
2
( ) 180 12 f x x
'''
=
Example of Higher Derivatives
Given
2 1
( )
3 2
x
f x
x
+
=

find
(2). f
''
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
2
2 2
2 3 2 3 2 1
7
( ) 7 3 2
3 2 3 2
x x
f x x
x x

+

'
= = =

( ) ( )
( )
3
3
42
( ) 14 3 2 3
3 2
f x x
x

''
= =

( )
3 3
42 42 21
(2)
32
4
3(2) 2
f
''
= = =

Implicit Differentiation
3
3 4 17 y x x = +
y is explicitly a function of x.
3
3 1 y xy x + = +
y is implicitly a function of x.
To differentiate the implicit case we write f (x) in
place of y to get:
| | | |
3
( ) ( ) 3 1 f x x f x x + = +
Implicit Differentiation (cont.)
Now differentiate
using the chain rule:
| | | |
3
( ) ( ) 3 1 f x x f x x + = +
| |
2
3 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 3 f x f x f x xf x
' '
+ + =
2
3 3 y y y xy
' '
+ + =
Which is
subbing in y
( )
2
3 3 y y x y
'
+ =
2
3
3
y
y
y x

'
=
+
Solve for y
Practice 1
A cylinder tank is being filled with water. The
tank has height 40 m and radius 3 m. If water
is being pumped in at a constant rate of 2
cubic meter per minute, find the rate at which
the height of the cylinder changes at 30
minute.

Practice 2
The length of a rectangle increases by 3 meter
per minute while the width decreases by 2
meter per minute. When the length is 40
meter and the width is 15 meter, what is the
rate at which the changes area

Practice 3
0, 5 /
dy
m dtk
dt
=
?
dx
dt
=
y= 15 m
X = 10 m
Practice 4
y= 15 m
X = 10 m
0, 5 /
dx
m dtk
dt
=
?
dy
dt
=
Practice 5
y= 15 m
X = 15m
0, 5 /
dx
m dtk
dt
=
?
dy
dt
=
Practice 6
A wire of length 12 inches can be bent into a
circle, a square, or cut to make both a circle
and a square. How much wire should be used
for the circle if the total area enclosed by the
figure(s) is to be a minimum? A maximum?

Practice 7
A window consisting of a rectangle topped by
a semicircle is to have an outer perimeter P.
Find the radius of the semicircle if the area of
the window is to be a maximum.

Practice 8
A rectangular field as shown is to be bounded
by a fence. Find the dimensions of the field
with maximum area that can be enclosed with
1000 feet of fencing. You can assume that
fencing is not needed along the river and
building.

Practice 9
A company manufactures cylindrical barrels to
store nuclear waste. The top and bottom of
the barrels are to be made with material that
costs $10 per square foot and the rest is made
with material that costs $8 per square foot. If
each barrel is to hold 5 cubic feet, find the
dimensions of the barrel that will minimize
the total cost.

The Integral
The Indefinite Integral
Substitution
The Definite Integral As a Sum
The Definite Integral As Area
The Definite Integral: The Fundamental
Theorem of Calculus
Antiderivative
An antiderivative of a function f is a function F such that
F f
'
=
Ex.
2
( ) 3 2 F x x = +
An antiderivative of
( ) 6 f x x =
since
( ) ( ). F x f x
'
=
is
( ) f x dx
}
means to find the set of all antiderivatives of f.
The
expression:
read the indefinite integral of f with respect to x,
( ) f x dx
}
Integral sign
Integrand
Indefinite Integral
x is called the variable
of integration
Every antiderivative F of f must be of the form F(x) = G(x) + C,
where C is a constant.
Notice
2
6 3 xdx x C = +
}
Constant of Integration
Represents every possible antiderivative of 6x.
Power Rule for the Indefinite
Integral, Part I
1
if 1
1
n
n
x
x dx C n
n
+
= + =
+
}
Ex.
4
3
4
x
x dx C = +
}
Power Rule for the Indefinite
Integral, Part II
1
1
ln x dx dx x C
x

= = +
} }
x x
e dx e C = +
}
Indefinite Integral of e
x
and b
x
ln
x
x
b
b dx C
b
= +
}
Sum and Difference Rules
( ) ( ) kf x dx k f x dx =
} }
( )
f g dx fdx gdx =
} } }
Ex.
( constant) k
4 4
3 3
2 2 2
4 2
x x
x dx x dx C C = = + = +
} }
( )
2 2
x x dx x dx xdx + = +
} } }
3 2
3 2
x x
C = + +
Constant Multiple Rule
Ex.
Integral Example/Different Variable
Ex. Find the indefinite integral:
2
7
3 2 6
u
e u du
u
| |
+
|
\ .
}
2
1
3 7 2 6
u
e du du u du du
u
= +
} } } }
3
2
3 7ln 6
3
u
e u u u C = = +
Position, Velocity, and
Acceleration Derivative Form
If s = s(t) is the position function of an object at time t, then
Velocity = v = Acceleration = a =
ds
dt
dv
dt
Integral Form
( ) ( ) s t v t dt =
}
( ) ( ) v t a t dt =
}
Integration by Substitution
Method of integration related to chain rule differentiation. If u is a
function of x, then we can use the formula
/
f
fdx du
du dx
| |
=
|
\ .
} }
Integration by Substitution
Ex. Consider the integral:
( )
9
2 3
3 5 x x dx
}
3 2
pick +5, then 3 u x du x dx = =
10
10
u
C = +
9
u du
}
( )
10
3
5
10
x
C
+
= +
Sub to get Integrate Back Substitute
2
3
du
dx
x
=
2
Let 5 7 then
10
du
u x dx
x
= =
Ex. Evaluate
( )
3/ 2
1
10 3/ 2
u
C
| |
= +
|
\ .
( )
3/ 2
2
5 7
15
x
C

= +
2
5 7 x x dx
}
2 1/ 2
1
5 7
10
x x dx u du =
} }
Pick u,
compute du
Sub in
Sub in
Integrate
( )
3
ln
dx
x x
}
Let ln then u x xdu dx = =
Ex. Evaluate
( )
3
3
ln
dx
u du
x x

=
} }
2
2
u
C

= +

( )
2
ln
2
x
C

= +

3
3
2
t
t
e dt
e +
}
3
3
Let +2 then
3
t
t
du
u e dt
e
= =
Ex. Evaluate
3
3
1 1
3
2
t
t
e dt
du
u
e
=
+
} }
ln
3
u
C = +
( )
3
ln 2
3
t
e
C
+
= +
Shortcuts: Integrals of
Expressions Involving ax + b
Rule
( )
( )
( )
1
1
( 1)
n
n
ax b
ax b dx C n
a n
+
+
+ = + =
+
}
( )
1 1
ln ax b dx ax b C
a

+ = + +
}
1
ax b ax b
e dx e C
a
+ +
= +
}
1
ln
ax b ax b
c dx c C
a c
+ +
= +
}
Riemann Sum
If f is a continuous function, then the left
Riemann sum with n equal subdivisions for f
over the interval [a, b] is defined to be
0 1 1
( ) ( ) ... ( )
n
f x x f x x f x x

= A + A + + A
( )
1
0
n
k
k
f x x

=
A

0 1
where ... are the
n
a x x x b = < < < =
| |
0 1 1
( ) ( ) ... ( )
n
f x f x f x x

= + + + A
subdivisions and ( ) / . x b a n A =
The Definite Integral
If f is a continuous function, the definite integral of f from a to b is defined to be
( )
1
0
( ) lim
b
n
k
n
k
a
f x dx f x x

=
= A

}
The function f is called the integrand, the numbers a and b are called the limits of
integration, and the variable x is called the variable of integration.
Approximating the Definite Integral
Ex. Calculate the Riemann sum for the
integral using n = 10. 2
2
0
x dx
}
( )
1 9
2
0 0
1
5
n
k k
k k
f x x x

= =
| |
A =
|
\ .

2 2 2
(1/ 5) (2/ 5) ... (9/ 5) (1/ 5)
(
= + + +

2.28 =
The Definite Integral
is read the integral, from a to b of f(x)dx.
( )
b
a
f x dx
}
Also note that the variable x is a dummy variable.
( ) ( )
b b
a a
f x dx f t dt =
} }
The Definite Integral As a Total
If r(x) is the rate of change of a quantity Q (in units of
Q per unit of x), then the total or accumulated
change of the quantity as x changes from a to b is
given by
Total change in quantity ( )
b
a
Q r x dx =
}
The Definite Integral As a Total
Ex. If at time t minutes you are traveling at a rate of
v(t) feet per minute, then the total distance traveled in
feet from minute 2 to minute 10 is given by
10
2
Total change in distance ( ) v t dt =
}
Area Under a Graph
a b
Idea: To find the exact area under the
graph of a function.
( ) y f x =
Method: Use an infinite number of
rectangles of equal width and compute
their area with a limit.
Width:
b a
x
n

A =
(n rect.)
Approximating Area
Approximate the area under the graph of
using n = 4.
| |
2
( ) 2 on 0, 2 f x x =
| |
0 1 2 3
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) A x f x f x f x f x ~ A + + +
( ) ( )
1 1 3
0 1
2 2 2
A f f f f
(
| | | |
~ + + +
| |
(
\ . \ .

1 1 9 7
0 2
2 2 2 2
A
(
~ + + + =
(

Area Under a Graph
a b
( ) y f x =
f continuous, nonnegative on [a, b]. The area
is
( )
1
0
Area lim
n
k
n
k
f x x

=
= A

( )
b
a
f x dx =
}
Geometric
Interpretation
(All Functions)
( )
b
a
f x dx =
}
Area of R
1
Area of R
2
+ Area of
R
3

a b
( ) y f x =
R
1

R
2
R
3
Area Using Geometry
Ex. Use geometry to compute the integral
( )
5
1
1 x dx


}
Area = 2
( )
5
1
1 4 2 2 x dx

= =
}
Area =4
Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
Let f be a continuous function on [a, b].
2. If F is any continuous antiderivative of f and is defined on
[a, b], then
( ) ( ) ( )
b
a
f x dx F b F a =
}
1. If ( ) ( ) , then ( ) ( ).
x
a
A x f t dt A x f x
'
= =
}
The Fundamental
Theorem of Calculus
Ex.
3 4
If ( ) 5 , find ( ).
x
a
A x t tdt A x
'
= +
}
3 4
( ) 5 A x x x
'
= +
Evaluating the Definite Integral
Ex.
Calculate
5
1
1
2 1 x dx
x
| |
+
|
\ .
}
(
5
5
2
1
1
1
2 1 ln x dx x x x
x
| |
+ = +
|
\ .
}
( ) ( )
2 2
5 ln5 5 1 ln1 1 = + +
28 ln5 26.39056 = ~
Substitution for Definite Integrals
Ex. Calculate
( )
1 1/ 2
2
0
2 3 x x dx +
}
2
let 3 u x x = +
then
2
du
dx
x
=
( )
1 4 1/ 2
2 1/ 2
0 0
2 3 x x x dx u du + =
} }
4
3/ 2
0
2
3
u =
16
3
=
Notice limits change
Computing Area
Ex. Find the area enclosed by the x-axis, the vertical lines x = 0, x = 2 and
the graph of
2
3
0
2x dx
}
Gives the area since 2x
3
is
nonnegative on [0, 2].
2
2
3 4
0
0
1
2
2
x dx x =
}
( ) ( )
4 4
1 1
2 0
2 2
=
8 =
Antiderivative Fund. Thm. of Calculus
2
2 . y x =
Applications of Definite Integrals
Area of between a Curve and the x-axis
}

=
A =
=
A
b
a
n
i
i
x
dx x f
x z f
PQRS of area
) (
) ( lim
1
0
0
) ( lim
1
0
s
A =

=
A
n
i
i
x
x z f
PQRS of area
dx x f
dx x f
b
a
b
a
) (
| ) ( |
1
1
}
}
=
=
} }
} }
}
=
+ =
=
b
c
c
a
b
c
c
a
b
a
dx x f dx x f
dx x f dx x f
x f
area shaded the of area the
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
) (
2 2
2 2
2
Area of between a Curve and the y-axis
}

=
A =
=
A
d
c
n
i
i
y
dy y g
y z g
PQRS of area
) (
) ( lim
1
0
0
) ( lim
1
0
s
A =

=
A
n
i
i
y
y z g
PQRS of area
dy y g
dy y g
d
c
d
c
) (
| ) ( |
1
1
}
}
=
=
} }
} }
}
=
+ =
=
d
e
e
c
d
e
e
c
d
c
dy y g dy y g
dy y g dy y g
y g
area shaded the of area the
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
) (
2 2
2 2
2
Area between Two Curves
}
=
b
a
dx y y
A area of area shaded
) (
2 1
}
=
d
c
dy x x
A area of area shaded
) (
2 1
Volume of Solid of Revolution
about the Coordinate Axes
x
y
0
axis of revolution
sphere
semi-circle
Volume of Solid of Revolution
about the Coordinate Axes
x
y
0
axis of revolution
rectangle
cylinder
cylinder
made up of many many different sizes of cylinder
Consider a vertical rectangular stripe on
the interval [x
i-1
, x
i
] with thickness Ax, a
thin cylinder is formed. This cylinder has
radius y
i
and height Ax. From the formula
for the volume of a cylinder, we have
x y V
i i
A = A
2
t
x y V
i i
A = A
2
t

=
A
=
A
A =
A =
n
i
i
x
n
i
i
x
x y
V V
1
2
0
1
0
lim
lim
t
}
=
b
a
dx y V
2
t
}
=
d
c
dy x V
2
t
Volume of Hollow Solid of Revolution
about the Coordinate Axes
dx y y V
b
a
) (
2
2
2
1
}
= t
hollow
dy x x V
d
c
) (
2
2
2
1
}
= t
hollow
Differential Equations
Adifferential equation is an equation involving an
unknown function and its derivatives
Differential Equations
A differential equation is an ordinary differential
equation if the unknown function depends on only
one independent variable.
If the unknown function depends on two or more
independent variables, the differential equation is a
partial differential equation
Standard and Differential Forms
Standard form for a first-order differential equation in the
unknown function y(x) is


where the y derivative appears only on the left side. Many,
but not all, first-order differential equations can be written in
standard form by algebraically solving for y and then setting
f (x,y) equal to the right side of the resulting equation
M(x, y)dx + N(x, y)dy = 0




' ( , ) y f x y =
First Order Linear Equations
A first order linear differential equation has the following
form:


The general solution is given by

Where


called the integrating factor. If an initial condition is given,
use it to find the constant C.





Here are some practical steps to follow
If the differential equation is given as



rewrite it in the form



where





Here are some practical steps to follow
Find the integrating factor


Evaluate the integral


Write down the general solution



If you are given an IVP, use the initial condition to find the
constant C.




.
Separable Equations
The differential equation of the form



is called separable, if f(x,y) = h(x) g(y); that is



In order to solve it, perform the following steps:
Solve the equation g(y) = 0, which gives the constant solutions
of (S);
Separable Equations
Rewrite the equation (S) as


and, then, integrate


to obtain
Separable Equations
Write down all the solutions; the constant ones
obtained from (1) and the ones given in (2);
If you are given an IVP, use the initial condition to
find the particular solution. Note that it may happen
that the particular solution is one of the constant
solutions given in (1). This is why Step 3 is important.

Modeling via Differential Equations
One of the most difficult problems that a scientist
deals with in his everyday research is: "How do I
translate a physical phenomenon into a set of
equations which describes it?'
It is usually impossible to describe a phenomenon
totally, so one usually strives for a set of equations
which describes the physical system approximately
and adequately.
Modeling via Differential Equations
In general, once we have built a set of equations, we
compare the data generated by the equations with
real data collected from the system (by
measurement).
If the two sets of data "agree'' (or are close), then we
gain confidence that the set of equations will lead to
a good description of the real-world system.
For example, we may use the equations to make
predictions about the long-term behavior of the
system.
Modeling via Differential Equations
It is also important to keep in mind that the set of equations
stays only "valid" as long as the two sets of data are close.
If a prediction from the equations leads to some conclusions
which are by no means close to the real-world future
behavior, then we should modify and "correct" the underlying
equations.
As you can see, the problem of generating "good" equations is
not an easy exercise.
Note that the set of equations is called a Model for the
system

How do we build a Model?

Clearly state the assumptions on which the model
will be based. These assumptions should describe
the relationships among the quantities to be studied.
Completely describe the parameters and variables to
be used in the model.
Use the assumptions (from Step 1) to derive
mathematical equations relating the parameters and
variables (from Step 2).

Exponential Growth Population

Let P(t) be a quantity that increases with time t and
the rate of increase is proportional to the same
quantity P as follows
d P / d t = k P

Where d p / d t is the first derivative of P, k > 0 and t
is the time. The solution to the above first order
differential equation is given by

P(t) = A e
k t

Where A is a constant not equal to 0.



Exponential Growth Population

If P = P
0
at t = 0, then P
0
= A e
0


which gives A = P
0


The final form of the solution is given by

P(t) = P
0
e
k t

Assuming P
0
is positive and since k is positive, P(t) is
an increasing exponential. d P / d t = k P is also called
an exponential growth model.

Exponential Decay - Radioactive Mate
Let M(t) be the amount of a product that decreases
with time t and the rate of decrease is proportional
to the amount M as follows
d M / d t = - k M

where d M / d t is the first derivative of M, k > 0 and
t is the time. Solve the above first order differential
equation to obtain

M(t) = A e
- k t

where A is non zero constant.


Exponential Decay - Radioactive Mate

If we assume that M = M
0
at t = 0, then

M
0
= A e
0


which gives A = M
0


The solution may be written as follows

M(t) = M
0
e
- k t

Assuming M
0
is positive and since k is positive, M(t) is
an decreasing exponential. d M / d t = - k M is also
called an exponential decay model.

Falling Object
An object is dropped from a height at time t = 0. If h(t) is the
height of the object at time t, a(t) the acceleration and v(t) the
velocity. The relationships between a, v and h are as follows:

a(t) = dv / dt , v(t) = dh / dt.

For a falling object, a(t) is constant and is equal to g = -9.8
m/s.

Combining the above differential equations, we can easily
deduce the following equation

d
2
h / dt
2
= g


Falling Object
Integrate both sides of the above equation to obtain

dh / dt = g t + v
0


Integrate one more time to obtain

h(t) = (1/2) g t + v
0
t + h
0


The above equation describes the height of a falling object,
from an initial height h
0
at an initial velocity v
0
, as a function
of time.

Newton's Law of Cooling
It is a model that describes, mathematically, the change in
temperature of an object in a given environment. The law
states that the rate of change (in time) of the temperature is
proportional to the difference between the temperature T of
the object and the temperature T
e
of the environment
surrounding the object.
d T / d t = - k (T - T
e
)

Let x = T - T
e
so that dx / dt = dT / dt

Using the above change of variable, the above differential
equation becomes

d x / d t = - k x

Newton's Law of Cooling
The solution to the above differential equation is given by

x = A e
- k t

substitute x by T - T
e


T - T
e
= A e
- k t

Assume that at t = 0 the temperature T = T
o


To - T
e
= A e
0

which gives A = T
o
- T
e

The final expression for T(t) i given by

T(t) = T
e
+ (T
o
- T
e
) e
- k t

This last expression shows how the temperature T
of the object changes with time.

Dilution Problems
Consider a tank which initially holds Vo gal of brine
that contains a lb of salt. Another solution,
containing b lb of salt per gallon, is poured into the
tank at the rate of e gal/min while simultaneously,
the well-stirred solution leaves the tank at the rate of
f gal/min (see Figure).
The problem is to find the amount of salt in the tank
at any time t.
Dilution Problems
Let Q denote the amount (in pounds) of salt in the tank at any
time.
The time rate of change of Q, dQ/ dt, equals the rate at which
salt enters the tank minus the rate at which salt leaves the
tank.
Salt enters the tank at the rate of be lb/min. To determine the
rate at which salt leaves the tank, we first calculate the
volume of brine in the tank at any time t, which is the initial
volume Vo plus the volume of brine added et minus the
volume of brine removed ft.
Thus, the volume of brine at any time is
Vo + et ft
The concentration of salt in the tank at any time is
Q / (V0 + et ft)
from which it follows that salt leaves the tank at the rate of
Practice 1
A bacteria culture is known to grow at a rate
proportional to the amount present. After one hour,
1000 strands of the bacteria originally in the culture.
and after four hours, 3000 strands. Find
(a) an expression for the approximate number of
strands of the bacteria present in the culture at any
time t and
(b) the approximate number of strands of the bacteria
originally in the culture.
Practice 2
A tank initially holds 100 gal of a brine solution
containing 20 lb of salt. At t = 0, fresh water is poured
into the tank at the rate of 5 gal/min, while the well-
stirred mixture leaves the tank at the same rate.
Find the amount of salt in the tank at any time t.