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CHILD LABOR IN DEEP SEA

FISHING AND FISH SORTING


INDUSTRIES IN PATTANI
PROVINCE, THAILAND
SY2000-2001

By
Dr. MARUT DAMCHA-OM
BACKGROUND
Map of the World
PROFILE OF
THAILAND
Map of
Thailand
and Pattani
Population

POPULATION OF THAILAND = 63
million

POPULATION OF PATTANI = 622,845


(Provincial statistics Aug. 2002)
Religion
Thailand
95% BUDDHIST
2% MUSLIM
3% OTHERS

Pattani
95% MUSLIM
3% BUDDHIST
2% OTHERS
Pattani Harbor
Deep-sea Fishing Boat
Laborers
Fish-sorting Laborers
Educational Attendance of Children
Between the Ages of 14-17 in
Pattani

Total Number of Children


• 46,941 (100%)

Out of School
• 15,953 (33.99%)
Children’s Rights to Education

CHILDREN RIGHTS = HUMAN RIGHTS

RIGHT TO LIVE

RIGHT TO LEARN

RIGHT TO EDUCATION
Constitution of the Kingdom of
Thailand 1997

Section 43
“A person shall enjoy an equal right to
receive the fundamental education for the
duration of not less than twelve years
which shall be provided by the State
thoroughly, up to the quality and without
charge …”
Significance of the Study
Increase awareness of child labor in Pattani
among parents, educators, schools, and
community officials

Results of this study will be helpful to policy


makers in developing relevant policies regarding
child laborers

Results may motivate communities and Non


Government Organizations to design programs
that directly address the children’s situation
Objective of the Study

To investigate the living conditions of


children working in deep sea fishing
boats and fish sorting industries
Focus of the Study

• Profile
a. Age
b. Sex
c. Nationality
d. Educational Attainment
e. Language Ability
Focus of the Study

1. Earnings and Welfare

3. Health Status

5. Employers’ Opinion

7. Reason for Working


Definition of Terms
Child Labor:
Any work that endangers the life, health,
well-being, and development of the child

Deep-sea fishing child laborers:


Children under the age of 18 engaged in
deep-sea fishing off the coast of Pattani

Fish-sorting child laborers:


Children under the age of 18 working as fish-
sorters in Pattani
Research Methodology
• Population & Sample
• Instrumentation & Data Collection

• Data Analysis
Findings: Profile
A) Age
Deep Sea Fishing Fish Sorting
12-14 12-14
Years Years
18% 39%

15-17 15-17
Years Years
82% 61%
Findings: Profile
B) Sex
180
165
160
140
120
100
Deep Sea Fishing
80 Fish Sorting
60 45
40
20 0 0
0
Male Female
Findings: Profile
C) Nationality
Fish Sorting: 100% Thai
Deep Sea Fishing:

Burmese
14%

Thai
53%
Cambodian
33%
Findings: Profile
D) Educational Attainment
Deep Sea Fishing Fish Sorting
No
Education
Grade 6 Grade 9 5% Grade 6
Grade 4 12% 33% 62%
24%

No
Education
64%
Findings: Profile
E) Language Ability (Thai)
Deep Sea Fishing Fish Sorting
Could
Could
Speak not
not Speak,
Only
Speak Read or
6%
Read Write
or 7%
Write
Speak Speak,
Read Read &
Speak Write
and
Only 87%
Write
17% 51%
2. Earnings and Welfare
Earnings in US Dollars per
Month
Deep Sea Fish
Fishing
Less
Sorting$23.80-
$71.50 $83.30 $47.60
Than 2%
27% 43%
$23.80
51%

Less than
$23.80 $23.80
22% 55%
2. Earnings and Welfare
Welfare - Drinking Water
Deep Sea Fishing: 100% Provided

Fish Sorting:
Provided
36%

Not
Provided
64%
3. Health Status

Deep Sea Fishing Fish Sorting

Never Been I ll
Been I ll
Been I ll 43%
13%
57%

Never
Been I ll
87%
4. Employers’ Opinion
Deep-Sea Fishing
Requirements of laborers
• resilience
• strength and endurance
• male
70% prefer adult laborers
30% prefer child laborers
Child and adult are treated equally.
Employers’ Opinion (cont’d)
Fish-sorting
75% prefer adult laborers
• more patient
• more experienced
• faster workers
25% prefer child laborers
• young and active, fast and obedient
• unaware of children’s rights
•Easy to please
5.Reason for Working
Deep Sea Fishing Fish
No Other
Sorting Peer
J obs No Other I nfluence
Available Peer J obs 10%
20% Influence Available
10% 23%

Need Need
Income to I ncome to
Support Support
Families Families
70% 67%
Conclusions
1. Fish-sorting is female dominated while deep-sea
fishing industry is a male dominated industry
2. Deep-sea fishing industry is attractive to both
male adult and child laborers
3. The Thai fishing industry is attractive to
neighboring countries.
4. The Thai deep sea fishing and fish sorting
industries lure children away from school
5. Low economic status of parents drive children to
join the fishing and sorting industry
Conclusions (cont’d)
1. The majority of health problems were due to
working accidents
6. Both parents and children are not aware of the
value of education

• The fishing and sorting industry is not aware


of children’s rights to education, a basic
human right.

• Children are stripped of normal healthy and


meaningful lives
Recommendations
• Since the fishing industry is attractive to
neighboring countries, the Thai government
should be more strict in checking the
implementation of the hiring of laborers from
other countries

3. The Ministry of Education, Thailand should


provide relevant non-formal education and
vocational training programs for parents and
adults in the community
Recommendations (cont’d)
1. The Ministry of Health should organize training
for the fishing and sorting industry managers
on work hazards prevention and health care of
employees

3. The Thai national and local government and


education stakeholders should collaborate for
strong social mobilization and advocacy on the
value of education for children.
Recommendations (cont’d)
1. Government agencies and NGOs concerned
should be more active in disseminating
information on children’s rights to education,
particularly to the fishing and sorting industries.

3. Government agencies concerned should be


more strict in implementing the anti-child labor
law.
Recommendations (cont’d)
1. Schools should be more student-friendly and
school community based to attract the child
laborers to go back to school

3. Access to appropriate non formal education


programmes as well as Thai language
teaching should be open to child laborers.
Thank
You