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DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING OF SEISMIC WAVES

CONCEPTION AND REALISATION PRESENTED BY


pasha

WHAT IS DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING


Representation of discrete time signals by a sequence of numbers or symbols, and the processing of these signals. The goal of DSP is usually to measure, filter and/or compress continuous real-world analog signals.(includes seismic signal)

1. 2. 3. 4.

DSP domains: basically it has 4 domains;


Time(t) domain(1-D signal) Frequency(f) domain Spatial domain(multi-D signal) Wavelet domain.

WHAT ARE SEISMIC WAVES


Waves of energy that travel through the earth, Result of an earthquake, explosion, or a volcano that imparts low-frequency acoustic energy. They often have very low strength.

Types of Seismic waves


1. BODY WAVES Primary waves(P-WAVES) Secondary waves(S-WAVES) 2. SURFACE WAVES Love waves Rayleigh waves

BASIC SCHEME OF SEISMIC DATA PROCESSING


Loading of the data/conversion Demultiplexing Geometry Editing Amplitude correction Frequency filter Deconvolution CMP-Sorting Velocity analysis NMO/DMO-Correction Stacking Migration Post-processing Measure

Pre-Processing

Prestack

Poststack

Printing/storage

Printing/storage

EDITING OR DMO CORRECTION

A seismic processing operation to correct for the fact that, for dipping reflections, the traces of a CMP gather do not involve a common reflection point. DMO effectively corrects for the reflection-point smear. (a) Horizontal Reflector CMP=CDP (b)Dipping Reflector CMPCDP
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EFEECT OF DMO CORRECTION ON VELOCITY SPECTRUM


WITHOUT DMO CORRECTION WITH DMO CORRECTION

EFFECT OF DMO CORRECTION ON CMP GATHERING


WITHOUT DMO CORRECTION WITH DMO CORRECTION

Predictive Deconvolution
What does it do? Clears seismic data by predicting and eliminating multiple reflections How does it work? A filter is designed that recognizes and eliminates repetitions in the signal

Deconvolution Equation

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To Conceptualize. . .
INPUT OUTPUT

FILTER

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Processing Steps
Define Geometry Kill Bad Traces CMP Gather
NMO Correction / Velocity Analysis

Predictive Deconvolution / Butterworth Filter CMP Gather


NMO Correction / Velocity Analysis

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Deconvolution Results
Location 109 Location 109

NO DECONVOLUTION

Time (ms)

DECONVOLVED 13

Butterworth Filter
Bandpass Filter Passes frequencies in the range of the vibroseis sweep (30-300 Hz) Effective in eliminating the noise amplified during predictive deconvolution

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Butterworth Filtering
Location 109 Location 109

Time (ms)

No Filter

Time (ms) Butterworth Filter

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Velocity Analysis
A Constant Velocity Analysis was conducted on both deconvolved and non-deconvolved data The following NMO stacking velocities were run for each situation:
- 1000 m/s - 1400 m/s - 1800 m/s - 2200 m/s -1200 m/s -1600 m/s -2000 m/s -2400 m/s

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