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5.1 Introduction, sign convention 5.2 Carry over factor, stiffness factor, distribution factor. 5.3 Application of moment distribution method for various types of continuous beams subjected to concentrated loads and uniformly distributed load over entire span having same or different moment of inertia up to three spans and two unknown support moment only, SFD and BMD.

5.4 Application of moment distribution method to single storey single bay symmetrical portal frames, SF and BM diagrams

Calculate support moments for continuous beam, portal frame and draw SFD and BMD.

Method developed by Prof. Hardy Cross in 1932. The method solves for the joint moments in continuous beams and rigid frames by successive approximation.

Distribution factors
Distribution at any end of a member factor is
the ratio of the stiffness factor of the member being considered to the sum of the stiffness's of all the members meeting at that particular continuous joint. Let us consider a moment applied at joint E as shown. Values shown are the stiffness's of the members

Consider a simple structure shown in the diagram which is under the action of applied moment M. For the equilibrium requirements at the joint, it is obvious that the summation of moments ( M ) should be zero at the joint. This means that the applied moment M will be distributed in all the members meeting at that joint in proportion to their stiffness factor. (This called stiffness concept) Total stiffness factor = 28,000 = 10,000 + 10,000 + 4,000 + 4,000

Carryover factors
When a joint is released, balancing moment occurs to counterbalance the unbalanced moment which is initially the same as the fixed-end moment. This balancing moment is then carried over to the member's other end. The ratio of the carried-over moment at the other end to the fixed-end moment of the initial end is the carryover factor.

Determination of carryover factors

The constant (1/2) in equation 3 is called the carryover factor

Carry-over factor is the ratio of the moment induced at the far end to the moment applied at near end for a propped cantilever beam. Now consider a simply supported beam carrying end moment at A.

Compare this Ma with that for a propped cantilever beam. We find that Stiffness factor of a simple beam is 3/4th of the cantilever beam. So propped cantilever beam is more stiff.

Analysis Method
Calculate member stiffness factors for each

Calculate distribution factors at both ends of each member

Determine carryover factors at both ends of each member.

Assume all joints are fixed and calculate fixed-end moments for each member.

Balance pinned (to zero) and cantilevered ends and distribute half the moment to the opposite end. Distribute the unbalanced moments at all other joints to each adjacent member based on the distribution factor.

Carryover the distributed moments to the opposite ends of the each member using the carryover factors. Iterate steps 6 and 7 until moment imbalance at each joint approaches zero. For unbraced frames, solve equilibrium equations for the restraining force and apply an equal and opposite force to the frame. Calculate moments due to this force and combine them with those from the braced frame to get the total moments.

Students learnt to calculate fixed end moments by moment distribution method