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Manufacturing Processes
Spring 2005

Instructor: T. Kesavadas (Prof. Kesh)

Associate Professor, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, 1006 Furnas Hall. http://wings.buffalo.edu/courses/sp04/mae/364/ Teaching Assistants (more details later):
Govindarajan Srimathveeravalli Sridhar Seshadri

What is Manufacturing?
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

Manu Factus : Latin for made by hand

Definition: A Well organized method of converting raw material to end product

End Product: Value and utility added to output.

Manufacturing Process

History of Manufacturing
Manufacturing started during 5000 4000 BC Wood work,ceramics,stone and metal work Steel Production 600-800 AD Industrial Revolution 1750 AD: Machine tools run by invention of steam engine Mass Production and Interchangeable Parts Computer Controlled Machines 1965 CNC,FMS systems

Historical development of materials - The Early Days

Period Egypt ~3100 B.C. to ~ Before 4000 300 B.C B.C Greece ~1100 B.C. to 4000-3000 B.C. ~146 B.C Roman Empire ~500 B.C. to 476 A.D Middle Ages 476 to 1492 3000-2000 B.C. Renaissance 14th to 16th centuries Metals and Casting Gold,copper and meteoritic iron Forming Process Hammering

Copper casting,stone and Stamping Jewelry metal molds,lost wax process,silver,lead,tin,bronze Bronze casting Wire by cutting and drawing, gold leaf

2000-1000 B.C. Wrought iron,brass 1000-1 B.C. 1A.D 1000 A.D Cast iron, cast steel Zinc steel Stamping of coins Armor,coinage,forgin g steel swords

1000-1500 A.D. Blast furnace, type Wire drawing,gold metals,casting of bells,pewter silver smith work

Historical development of materials - The Industrial Revolution

Industrial Revolution 1750-1850 1500-1600 A.D. Cast iron cannon, tinplate Water power for metal working,rolling mill for coinage

1600-1700 A.D.

Permanent mold casting,brass fromRolling(lead,gold,silver) copper and metallic zinc Shape rolling(lead)

1700-1800 A.D.

Malleable cast iron,crucible steel

Extrusion (lead pipe), deep drawing, rolling(iron bars and rods)

1800-1900 A.D.

Centrifugal casting,Bessemer process,electrolytic aluminum,nickel steels,Babbitt, galvanized steel, powder metallurgy, tungsten steel, open hearth steel

Steam hammer, steel rolling,seamless tube piercing,steel rail rolling, continuous rolling , electroplating

Historical development of materials - The Modern Age

WW I and WW II 1900-1920 A.D. 1920-1940 A.D. Die casting 1940-1950 A.D. Lost wax for engineering parts Space Age Tube rolling, hot extrusion Tungsten wire from powder Extrusion (steel),swaging, powder metal for engineering parts

1950-1960 A.D. Ceramic mold, nodular iron, Cold extrusion semiconductors,continuous (steel),explosive casting forming,thermo mechanical treatment 1960-1970 A.D 1970-1980 s Squeeze casting, single crystal turbine blades Hydrostatic extrusion,electroforming

Compacted graphite,vacuum Precision forging,isothermal casting,organically bonded forging, super plastic sand,automation of molding forming,die design by and pouring, large aluminum analytical methods, net castings for aircraft structures shape forming rapid solidification technology

Req. for a good manufacturing system

Requirements of a good manufacturing system

Product should meet design requirement Economical Process Quality should be built into the system Should be flexible and responsive to new technology High productivity: Best utilization of man, material, machine, capital and available resources.

Steps in Modern Manufacturing

Definition of product need, marketing information

Conceptual design and evaluation Feasibility study

Design analysis;codes/standards review; physical and analytical models

CAM and CAPP Production

Prototype production testing and evaluation

Inspection and quality assurance


Production drawings; Instruction manuals

Packaging; marketing and sales literature

Material Specification; process and equipment selection; safety review


Pilot Production

Manufacturing of a Paper Clip

What is the function How long does it last How critical is the part Material

Dimension Method of manufacturing Function based design

Metallic - what type Non metallic plastic Diameter of clip Shape of clip Manual

Stress, Strain Life of clip Stiffness Appearance,Color,Finish Plating,painting


AISI 1010 welded tubing, assembly resistance welded and electrostatically painted AISI 1010,swaged and cadmium plated

Aluminum alloy forging, polished and buffed

Forged aluminum tubing(alloy similar to 6063), polished and buffed AISI 1008,press formed resistance welded and painted

Manufacturing of a bicycle

AISI 1020,forging and chromium plated

AISI 1010, luster finished AISI 1008, press coil stock,profile formed,welded and plated milled,resistance welded and chromium plated formed,welded and plated Cold drawn medium carbon steel,( similar to AISI 1035) bright zinc plated

AISI 1020 tubing, machine threaded and painted

AISI 1010,stamped and coined and chromium plated AISI 1010, stamped and chromium plated Headed brass,nickel plated Aluminum permanent mold casting,machined , polished and buffed

Seamless AISI 1020 tubing swaged tube sections brazed into fork crown,painted

Hardened high-carbon steel,thread rolled and chromium plated

AISI 1010,stamped and chromium plated

AISI 1040 forging,carburized and chromium plated Case hardened forging quality steel parts, black oxide coating

Assignment 1
Select a simple product of your choice
Try to analyze the different materials, processes, etc Use library resources We will discuss this in the class on Friday

Selection of Process: Topic to be covered

Sand/Expandable Mold,Permanent Mold

Forming and Shaping

Rolling,forging,extrusion,powder metallurgy


Selection of Process
Unconventional Method EDM,ECM,Ultrasound,High Energy Beam,machining Joining Welding,Brazing,Soldering Finishing Honing,Lapping,Polishing,Burnishing,Deburring

Objectives of this course and what is expected of you

Manufacturing processes and fundamentals Selection of appropriate process to meet design requirements Effect of process parameters and variables on the quality of parts produced Effect of material properties on a given process Decision and methods for different product size and mix Effect of design on manufacturability Overview of computer aided methods in traditional manufacturing processes

Two methods of forming a dish shaped part from sheet metal Left: conventional hydraulic/mechanical press using male and female dies Right: explosive forming using only one die.
pressure Upper die Explosive


work piece

Lower Die

Three methods of casting turbine blades A: conventional casting with ceramic mold B: directional solidification C: Method to produce single crystal blade

Selection of Process depends on

Dimensional and surface finish requirements Operational Cost Design and strength requirements Consequences of various methods

Design for Assembly

Design of the product to permit assembly Possibility of multipurpose parts Capability of manufacturing process to consistently produce parts which can be assembled without problem Method or process of assembly Automated Systems,Manual Systems etc

Design for Assembly

Automation and Impact of Computers

Machine Control Systems Computer Numerical Control machines, Robots,Machines,Processes Computer Integrated Technology Responsive to market change Better use of process,man,machining management etc CAD/CAM: Computer Aided Design And Manufacturing FMS: Flexible Manufacturing System GT: Group Technology VR: Virtual Reality

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