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Plastic Injection Molding

o Overview o Injection Molding o Injection Molding machine o Injection molding processes o Injection molding materials o Injection molding problems and solutions o Typical applications and Products

o Injection molding is the most widely used polymeric fabrication


o It is the primary process for manufacturing thermo plastic


o Injection molding can be used to form a wide variety of

products. Complexity is virtually unlimited, sizes may range from very small to very large, and excellent control of tolerances is also possible. light weight parts of specific color with built in surface texturing.
thermoplastics, fiber reinforces thermoplastics, thermosetting plastics, and elastomers.

o The major reasons that injection is so popular is that it produces o Most polymers may be injection molded, including

Injection molding
o Injection molding is a method to obtain molded products by injecting

plastic materials molten by heat into a mold, and then cooling and solidifying them. The method is suitable for the mass production of products with complicated shapes, and takes a large part in the area of plastic processing.

Advantages of Injection Molding

o High production rates

o Wide range of materials can be used

o Low labor costs o Minimal scrap losses

Types of Injection Molding Machines

o Hand injection molding machine o Piston type injection molding machine o Reciprocating type injection molding machine

Injection Molding Machine

o Injection molding machine is divided into 3 units i.e. a clamping

unit, an injection unit and mold.

o The functions of the clamping unit are opening and closing a die,

and the ejection of products. There are 2 types of clamping methods, namely the toggle type shown in the figure below and the straight-hydraulic type in which a mold is directly opened and closed with a hydraulic cylinder. The functions of the injection unit are to melt plastic by heat and then to inject molten plastic into a mold.

Machine components
Injection system

The injection system consists of a hopper, a reciprocating screw and barrel assembly, and an injection nozzle, as shown in Figure 1. This system confines and transports the plastic as it progresses through the feeding, compressing, degassing, melting, injection, and packing stages. FIGURE 1. A single screw injection molding machine for thermoplastics, showing the plasticizing screw, a barrel, band heaters to heat the barrel, a stationary platen, and a movable platen.

The hopper The barrel The reciprocating screw The reciprocating screw is used to compress, melt,

and convey the material. The reciprocating screw consists of three zones (illustrated below)

The feeding zone The compressing (or transition) zone The metering zone

Figure . A reciprocating screw, showing the feeding zone, compressing (or transition) zone, and metering zone

The nozzle

FIGURE 3. (a) Nozzle with barrel in processing position. (b) Nozzle with barrel backed out for purging.

Mold system The mold system consists of tie bars, stationary and moving platens, as well as molding plates (bases) that house the cavity, sprue and runner systems, ejector pins, and cooling channels, as shown in Figure 4. The mold is essentially a heat exchanger in which the molten thermoplastic solidifies to the desired shape and dimensional details defined by the cavity.

Mold System

3 plate mold

2 plate mold

o Hydraulic system o Control system o Clamping system o The delivery system

The delivery system, which provides passage for the molten plastic from the machine nozzle to the part cavity, generally includes: a sprue cold slug wells a main runner branch runners gates. FIGURE 6. The molded system includes a delivery system and molded parts.

Injection molding processes

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

The Injection molding process basically is divided into 6 major steps Clamping Injection Dwelling Cooling Mold Opening Ejection

Cycle time in injection molding

The injection molding cycle can be divided into

several stages. They aremold closing, filling, packing, cooling, mold opening and ejection as shown here. Cooling Time is a major fraction of the total cycle time. Materials for injection molding

Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) Polyethylene Polypropelene Polystyrene

Typical Applications
Injection molding is widely used in a wide variety of industries:

automotive, appliance, computer, communication and industrial equipment. Examples of injection molded parts in the automotive industry include sail panels, radiator end caps, door panels, lamp housings, and fuel rails.

Automobile parts

Automotive Sail Panel

Radiator End Cap

Fuel Rails with Injectors

Injection Molding Problems and Solutions

Fault Air trap
Black streaks Flash Short shot Sink mark Solution Reduce injection speed, Proper venting. Lower the barrel temp. Clean the injection unit. Adjust the clamp force. Reduce the injection pressure. Increase the injection value. Increase the cooling time.

As the injection molding technology is now living its most rapid

development times. The most important factors behind this situation is There is no potential competitors
Injection molding is especially suitable for mass production.

The profitable molding in todays competitive market depends on

precise clamping action coupled with both high plasticizing performance and reliability integrated with complete plant operating performance.

Injection Molding Hand Book

Dominick V Rosato Donald V Rosato Theory of Molds R S Nagesh WWW.Google.com